Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Wendy Chao. Chao, D. Costa, E. Rusie-Seamon, W. Weissner and J. Woods Natural Standard Research Collaboration, USA Abstract: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of medicinal herbs, as well as clinical evidence of herb-drug interactions.

Search terms used included common names, scientific names, and synonyms for the herbs Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course their primary active constituents. Bibliographies of relevant articles were also searched by hand to obtain additional references. No restrictions were placed on language or quality of publications. All literature col- lected pertained to adverse effects, pharmacokinetics, and suspected or confirmed cases of herb-drug interactions. Over 80 herbs Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course bo- tanicals including plants, fungi, algae, and common constituents were identified that had clinically significant interactions with pre- scription and over-the-counter drugs.

Because many herbs have demonstrated adverse effects on the liver, the potential for interaction with hepatotoxic agents such as acetaminophen is also significant.

Clinical outcomes of reported herb-drug interactions ranged from mild to severe. Of note, fatalities though rare have occurred with concomitant ephedra and caffeine use. As herbal products and dietary supplements in general continue to grow in popu- larity, patients and health care providers should be vigilant of potential herb-drug interactions.

Keywords: Herbs, drugs, dietary supplements, interactions, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects. The survey also found the following been principle sources of pharmacologically active compounds [1]. Aspirin, possibly the most widely used drug in the agents.

Other notable herb-based drugs include affects, and drug interactions for many common medicinal herbs. Concurrent use of substances with similar effects such yew treeyohimbine a constituent of yohimbe bark and biguanide as anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, hepatotoxic, and other effects antidiabetic drugs such as metformin derived from the constituents should be approached with caution.

A qualified healthcare practi- of French lilac or galega. Herbal supplements have become increas- ingly popular in recent years, and currently constitute a multi- To prepare this review, electronic searches were conducted in billion dollar industry. Search terms market [4]. Although herbal medicines have been used for centu- used included common names, scientific names, and multiple syno- ries, evidence of efficacy is largely anecdotal and unproven by con- nyms for the herbs and their primary active constituents.

Bibliogra- ventional clinical testing [1,2]. Furthermore, dietary supplements phies of relevant articles were also searched by hand for articles not including herbal supplements are not FDA-regulated and are often found in electronic searches, and additional references were ob- not standardized. Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course, safety and efficacy are difficult to tained.

Rather, adverse and toxic effects have been documented for effects and drug-herb interactions, are summarized below. When many herbal products — sometimes Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course to contaminants, but often available, evidence from basic science and theory are included.

The potential interactions between herbs and conventional drugs are often over- Acacia Acacia senegal looked — also ironic in light of the fact that many herbs not only Pharmacokinetics possess known pharmacological effects, but also serve as sources Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course available evidence. Multiple case reports and case series of herb-drug interactions exist [].

According to a recent cross- Adverse Effects There are minimal reports of adverse effects associated with acacia. Pharmacokinetics Interactions Insufficient available evidence. Amoxicillin: Acacia has been shown to affect the absorption of Adverse Effects amoxicillin when taken concurrently [28]; this is likely Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course to the fiber in acacia, which may impair the absorption of oral There are few reports of adverse effects associated with ashwa- agents.

Doses should be separated by at least four hours. Occasionally, human trials have reported dermatitis, diure- sis, diarrhea, hypoglycemia, nausea, and abdominal discomfort [ Aloe Aloe vera 57].

Pharmacokinetics Interactions Aloe latex contains anthraquinone glycosides aloin, aloe- Cholinergic agents: Ashwagandha has been Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course with emodin and barbaloin. Anthraquinone glycosides, which are ab- cholinesterase inhibition in biochemical studies [58]. The half-life of aloe- combination ashwagandha products [59], it should be used cau- emodin is approximately hours [29]. Adverse Effects Paclitaxel: Though clinical data is lacking, evidence from a Aloe leaf is used topically for burns and wound healing.

Aloe number of animal studies suggests that ashwagandha may enhance latex is used systemically internally. Aloe latex is commonly used the effects of paclitaxel []. Ashwagandha may also prevent as a laxative and may cause abdominal cramping and diarrhea [2]. Excessive use may cause potassium loss [30]. Chronic use has been associated with an increased The pharmacokinetics of astragalus is not well understood.

Anecdotally, aloe has been linked to Clinical research indicates that Astragalus flavonoids may be ab- thyroid dysfunction [32]. Interactions Adverse Effects Hypoglycemic agents: Oral aloe gel has been associated with reduced blood glucose when used with glibenclamide also known Astragalus used in recommended doses is considered Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course be safe as glyburide in the United States [33].

Concurrent use of aloe with and well-tolerated. The most commonly reported adverse events are other agents that lower blood sugar, such as insulin [33], may in- diarrhea and other mild gastrointestinal effects [66,67].

Interactions Antiretroviral agents: Acemannan, the major carbohydrate Stanozolol: Clinical research has demonstrated astragalus to fraction in aloe gel, has been shown in vitro to possess anti- enhance the effect of stanozolol in treating chronic aplastic anemia retroviral activities []. Preliminary clinical reports suggest that [68]. Aloe should be discontinued one week before Adverse Effects surgery. Based on historical use and available research, it avocado ap- Arnica Arnica spp.

Headache, migraine headache with fever, Pharmacokinetics and drowsiness have been reported [69]. One patient with severe cardiovascular disease developed hemiplegia during a trial evaluat- The pharmacokinetics of arnica is not well understood.

Cross-allergy between avocado and latex Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course has been Adverse Effects reported in several studies and case reports []. Allergy symp- Based on historical use and available research, it appears that toms include urticaria, bronchospasm, and intestinal spasms. Re- arnica is generally well tolerated when used in recommended ho- search also suggests potential cross Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course between avocado, meopathic doses for up to two weeks.

Allergic reactions to the Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course chestnut, and banana allergies [73,78,79]. To avoid contact dermatitis, arnica should not be used on open wounds or near the eyes or mouth. It should be avoided in patients Monoaminergic agents: Large amounts of avocado may poten- with known allergies to arnica or any plant in the Asteraceae or tiate effects of MAO inhibitors, and may lead to hypertensive crisis Compositae families.

Ingestion of oral non-diluted Arnica montana-containing ex- Beet Beta vulgaris tracts has induced severe gastroenteritis, nervousness, accelerated Pharmacokinetics heart rate, muscular weakness, and death [48]. The pharmacokinetics of beet is not well understood. However, Interactions research has shown that intact betalins the water-soluble chro- Analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents: Arnica may have moalkaloids responsible for beet color are excreted rapidly and in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity [], and theoretically relatively high volumes [81].

This suggests that either Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course bioavail- may interact with similar agents. In clinical research involving ability of betalins is low or that renal excretion is the primary route healthy humans, topical arnica was shown to increase hydroxyethyl Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course elimination for these compounds.

Sugar beet fiber increases cho- salicylate's analgesic effects [53]. Rarely, it may cause constipation, ple who work with beets in agricultural or factory settings []. Beta-glucan is listed by the U. Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course []. Several cases of occupational illness, including asthma, anaphy- In a case series, six of 20 patients with acquired immunodefi- laxis, toxic poisoning, respiratory infections, and tularemia among ciency syndrome AIDS or AIDS-related complex developed kera- beet farmers and workers in beet sugar processing facilities have toderma of the palms and soles after intravenous infusion of soluble been described in the literature [,].

Most of these ill- glucan beta polyglucose. Because none of the untreated nesses were not directly due to beet Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course, but rather to expo- patients developed similar hyperkeratosis, the correlation to beta- sure to the environmental bacteria, fungi, pollutants, or chemical glucan was significant; however, it was suggested that this reaction insecticides present in such settings.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, beets Interactions should be avoided in infants younger than three months of age due to the high nitrate content and the risk of nitrate poisoning.

How- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents NSAIDs : Although ever, breastfed infants of mothers who ingest beets and other foods clinical evidence is lacking, severe gastrointestinal damage result- high in nitrates are not at risk of nitrate poisoning because nitrate ing in enteric-induced bacterial peritonitis has been Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course with concentration does not increase significantly in breast milk [96].

Interactions Beta-sitosterol, Sitosterol Oral agents: As demonstrated by clinical research, the addition Pharmacokinetics of sugar beet fiber to the diet was shown to significantly decrease Plant sterols are poorly absorbed because they are bound to the gastrointestinal transit time [97].

Contrarily, increased secretion of fibers of the plant []. Plasma plant sterol contents change in motilin, a gastrointestinal hormone, was observed after meals in a parallel with cholesterol and fat absorption; the lower the choles- subset of Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes who terol absorption, the lower the plasma beta-sitosterol level [ were taking a beet fiber supplement, suggesting that increased beet ].

Beta-sitosterol is Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course similar to cholesterol [,]. Increased or de- In vitro research suggests that beta-sitosterol is converted into creased transit time may potentially impact the absorption and cholic acid in the intestinal tract []. Beta-sitosterol passes bioavailability of some orally ingested agents. Pharmacokinetics Beta-sitosterol is also excreted in bile, with minimal urinary excre- tion [].

Data from some human trials suggest that beta- The belladonna constituent atropine has a reported half-life of sitosterol may reduce progesterone levels in healthy males and fe- several hours and is rarely detectable in the plasma after 24 hours.

Atropine is primarily excreted by the kidneys [99]. Adverse Effects Adverse Effects Based on available data, it appears that beta-sitosterol is well There is extensive literature on the adverse effects and toxicity tolerated in recommended doses for up to six months [].

Many of these effects may occur at therapeutic doses. Tachycardia has been reported in cases of toxicity [99, ,]. Belladonna contains atropine, which is commonly Activated charcoal: Data from clinical trials indicate that acti- used in hospitals to increase heart rate. In one case report, infants vated charcoal 8g given three times daily may slightly decrease who received hyoscyamine sulfate developed heart rates of serum levels of beta-sitosterol [].

Death Alpha-adrenergic agents: Clinical studies Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course that beta- in children may occur at 0. The combination of the sterols and these agents eal motor activity, presumably by means of a Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course receptor may result in synergistic effects mechanism.

In humans, these effects were completely blocked by Antibiotics: Beta-sitosterol has been demonstrated in vivo to atropine when it was administered before cisapride; the effect did protect and improve the oral absorption of acid-labile antibiotics, not occur when atropine was administered after cisapride [].

Interactions HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: In clinical research, simvas- tatin has been shown to elevate the ratio of plant sterol to choles- Antidiabetic agents: In a recent cross-sectional, point-of-care terol in patients with the highest baseline campestanol levels []. Atorvastatin and simvastatin have been Bitter melon Momordica charantia shown to independently elevate the ratio of plant sterol to choles- terol in Behandlung von Prostatitis Gips Course with coronary heart disease, [] and atorvastatin Pharmacokinetics has been suggested to increase levels of plasma plant sterols in The pharmacokinetics of bitter melon is not well understood.

It diabetics [].