Prostata-Stanzbiopsie – Gewebeentnahme aus der Prostata
Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Objective To determine the prevalence of chronic Kostenanalyse der Prostata debilitating symptoms of the overactive bladder, defined here as the presence of chronic frequency, urgency and urge incontinence either alone or in any combinationand presumed to be caused by involuntary detrusor contractions.
The prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms increased with advancing age. Conclusion Kostenanalyse der Prostata of an overactive bladder, of which frequency and urgency are as bothersome as urge incontinence, are highly prevalent in the general population.
However, only a few affected individuals currently receive treatment. Taken together, such findings indicate that there is considerable scope for improvement in terms of how physicians diagnose and treat this condition. Interest in problems of bladder control, e.
As such, there is Kostenanalyse der Prostata growing demand for Kostenanalyse der Prostata improved management of bladder control problems. In particular, the overactive bladder has become the focus of much ongoing research as a result of the limitations of current therapies for this condition.
UTI, stones, interstitial cystitis [ 23 ]. Patients with an overactive bladder include those with and without a possible neurological cause for their symptoms.
The overactive bladder is a chronic condition defined urodynamically as detrusor overactivity, and characterized by involuntary bladder contractions during the filling phase of the micturition cycle [ 4 ]. The involuntary contractions result in reduced functional bladder capacity and unpredictable, troublesome symptoms. Symptoms suggestive of an overactive bladder often profoundly compromise quality of life [ 5 - 7 ].
These studies showed that patients with bladder overactivity have significantly lower scores in most domains of this instrument than has a normal population. Furthermore, even when comorbidity is controlled for, the quality of life of those with an overactive bladder remains considerably impaired [ 6 ]. Constant worry about when urgency may Kostenanalyse der Prostata results in the development of elaborate coping mechanisms to enable patients to manage their condition e.
It is not Kostenanalyse der Prostata to appreciate how these troublesome symptoms may disrupt people's daily lives and occupations.
Despite the detrimental effect of these symptoms on quality of life [ 5 ], many affected individuals fail to report this condition to their physicians, and often endure the inconvenience and unpleasantness of Kostenanalyse der Prostata for many years.
This may be because they are embarrassed or possibly because of the mistaken opinion that effective treatment is not available. The large studies conducted have focused on Kostenanalyse der Prostata incontinence as a whole [ 10 - 15 ]. Interviews were conducted by telephone, except in Spain, where direct interviews were conducted because of the lower proportion of households having a telephone.
A random sample was obtained by a stratified approach based on geographical variables, using information from current telephone number listings or electoral census data Spain. At least individuals with overactive bladder symptoms were interviewed in each country. This first step specifically excluded individuals whose only urinary complaint was UTI. Those who reported urinating very frequently during the day, waking up several times at night because of Kostenanalyse der Prostata need to urinate, often feeling a strong need to urinate, or experiencing urinary leakage, proceeded to the next screening stage.
Symptoms attributable to an overactive bladder were identified by positive responses to specific questions on frequency, urgency and urge incontinence. Although respondents could have more Kostenanalyse der Prostata one Kostenanalyse der Prostata bladder symptom, they were only classified once as having an overactive bladder.
Positive responses only to voiding symptoms suggestive of stress incontinence, prostatic obstruction, or Kostenanalyse der Prostata occurrence of UTI resulted in exclusion from further investigation. No remuneration was given for participating in the survey.
The final questionnaire was tested in fewer interviews in each country before the main survey was commenced. The combined database of the six Kostenanalyse der Prostata was weighted so that the number of interviews reflected the population size in each country. Overall, symptoms i.
The prevalence of individual symptoms occurring alone was small, as was the prevalence of respondents with all the symptoms of an overactive bladder Fig. The prevalence of overactive bladder and of all three symptoms i. There were only minor differences between the sexes in the overall prevalence of an overactive bladder and its symptoms. The exception was urge incontinence, which was more prevalent among women than men.
The Kostenanalyse der Prostata bladder has Kostenanalyse der Prostata been diagnosed on the basis of urodynamic investigation [ 419 ]. However, the application of such techniques Kostenanalyse der Prostata impractical in large epidemiological studies of the general population. While clinical experience has shown that these symptoms are highly prevalent, no specific studies investigating the prevalence of bladder overactivity have been published.
Importantly, this survey also shows that it is not only the elderly who suffer from the debilitating symptoms of the overactive bladder. However, it has to be considered that other possible causes of involuntary bladder contractions may have contributed to the prevalence findings, as urodynamic assessments were not used to confirm the underlying cause of these symptoms. For the purposes of this study an overactive bladder was defined as frequency, urgency and urge incontinence, occurring either singly or in combination, a definition that reflected expert consensus at the time the study was designed.
The potential therefore existed for some patients to be experiencing symptoms of frequency alone, which is known to be caused by other Kostenanalyse der Prostata than detrusor overactivity [ 20 ]. However, in the present survey only 4. Furthermore, this survey attempted to exclude patients with symptoms caused Kostenanalyse der Prostata acute or transient causes, e. Consequently, the current study presents prevalence data that are as accurate as possible, given the unknown aetiology of this condition and the working definition of the overactive bladder in force at the time the study was designed and conducted.
The variety of definitions used to define Kostenanalyse der Prostata control problems, including overactive bladder, Kostenanalyse der Prostata previously made it difficult to compare prevalence data across studies. Furthermore, studies were often conducted with no Kostenanalyse der Prostata to severity, bothersomeness or frequency of Kostenanalyse der Prostata.
The current survey questionnaire was specifically Kostenanalyse der Prostata to capture symptoms that were considered to be chronic and presumed to be bothersome. Additionally, individuals having Kostenanalyse der Prostata of pure stress incontinence or those suggestive of prostatic obstruction were excluded from the survey, as were those who had UTIs which are common and transient causes of urinary symptoms.
Indeed, the vast majority of respondents with overactive bladder symptoms had had their Kostenanalyse der Prostata for over a year, providing further support for the chronic nature of this condition. The prevalence of overactive bladder symptoms varied among the countries surveyed; the higher values reported in Spain may reflect the Kostenanalyse der Prostata of data collection.
In that country, the survey was conducted by direct interview in which respondents may have felt more able to discuss their bladder control problems. Kostenanalyse der Prostata the low prevalence Kostenanalyse der Prostata in France and Italy, this method of interview may also be appropriate in these countries. As the precise aetiology of bladder overactivity is unknown, there is no epidemiological evidence to support differences among countries in prevalence rates.
Interestingly, in the current survey the most widely known symptom of the overactive bladder, i. Urinary frequency i. As bladder control problems are common, the questions in this survey were specifically phrased to capture only those symptoms that were chronic and presumed to be troublesome. This value is surprisingly high as many individuals with this condition develop coping strategies in an attempt to manage their bladder problems, and may not fully realise the detrimental Kostenanalyse der Prostata that these symptoms have on their quality of life.
Furthermore, it is not only urinary leakage that respondents find debilitating; frequency and urgency are also considered to be bothersome, because these symptoms are almost as common as urge incontinence as reasons for seeking help. Kostenanalyse der Prostata, of those who did not consult a doctor, many reported that they were unaware that effective treatment was available.
Increased public and professional education about the problems of bladder control, and that such problems are treatable or at least manageable, is therefore an important goal for the future [ 23 ]. Nevertheless, relatively few individuals are currently receiving treatment.
In addition to urge incontinence, frequency and urgency are symptoms that should also be taken seriously by physicians as reasons for providing treatment. Volume 87Issue 9. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
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Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of chronic and debilitating symptoms of the overactive bladder, defined here as the presence of chronic frequency, urgency and urge incontinence either alone or in any combinationand presumed to be caused by involuntary detrusor contractions. Introduction Interest in problems of bladder control, e. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Prevalence of Kostenanalyse der Prostata overactive bladder symptoms reported in the study.
Figure 2 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Discussion The overactive bladder has traditionally been diagnosed on the basis of urodynamic investigation [ 419 ]. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Pharmacia Corporation. Google Scholar. Crossref PubMed Kostenanalyse der Prostata Scholar. PubMed Google Scholar.
Crossref Google Scholar. Authors I. Thüroff, MD, Professor and Chairman. Wein, MD, Kostenanalyse der Prostata and Chair. Citing Literature. Volume 87Issue 9 June Pages Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password.