PSA Tests How to Interpret Them
This article was researched, compiled and written by:- Alessandra Dalevi — Salegen is a new medicine sold in tablet form used in the treatment of xerostoma, a disease also known as dry mouth syndrome in which the person positive Prostata-Tests not able to produce saliva. Its active ingredient is pilocarpine, a substance extracted from jaborandi, a plant native to Northeastern Brazil.
Pilocarpus jaborandi is an integral part of Brazilian folk medicine. Caboclos non-Indian jungle residents and Positive Prostata-Tests prepare a tea with its leaves and drink it as a diuretic or to induce sweat. Diabetics and asthma sufferers use it as expectorant and stimulant via an infusion made with the powdered leaves.
Arthritis and pleurisy—a lung inflammation—have also been treated with jaborandi. And when applied to the scalp, a potion made with the leaves is believed to prevent baldness. Merck Laboratory has marketed a positive Prostata-Tests made from jaborandi called Policarpina, which is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
When the first Europeans landed in the Americas, the indigenous peoples from the region, utilizing plants and other natural substances had already developed a sophisticated medical system that included diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases. With the skyrocketing prices of developing new drugs and a seeming exhaustion of the traditional allopathic medicine, more and more laboratories around the positive Prostata-Tests are showing interest in this wealth of folk medicine knowledge.
The costs of researching the medicinal powers of plants are far less positive Prostata-Tests trying to produce synthetic drugs. Besides, the sheer number of different chemicals that exist in the Amazon, for example, dwarfs the capacity that scientist positive Prostata-Tests of creating new products.
Many companies have also used the argument that Brazil has no right to demand compensation and royalties positive Prostata-Tests its resources when the country is an infamous pirate itself producing medicines patented overseas without positive Prostata-Tests any royalties to its creators. This problem, however, has been addressed recently by the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, which has passed a law recognizing foreign patents for several products including pharmaceutical positive Prostata-Tests.
Among Brazilian herbal products widely used in the country, santo daime Vine Banisteriopsis and quebra-pedra Parietaria officinalis have been patented in the U. The first substance, extracted from a vine, and also known as jagupe and ayahuasca, has positive Prostata-Tests properties and is used in connection with some Indian religious rituals and some sects.
The International Plant Medicine Corporation got its patent. The quebra-pedra stone breaker, literallyalso known as fura-paredes walls piercer, literally positive Prostata-Tests prepared as an infusion for kidney ailments. In the U. In Japan, an Amazon plant called muirapuama is being sold as a cure for impotency and as positive Prostata-Tests aphrodisiac.
In Canada, Biolink, a small and new company has patented rupununine, a substance extracted from the seeds of bibiri Octotea radioeian Amazon plant. Biolink also wants to patent cumaniol, a substance extracted from a poison made from wild manioc, that is used to catch fishes in the Amazon. The new product, according to positive Prostata-Tests Canadian company, might be used to stop the heart during some delicate surgeries. Another herb abundant in Brazil has become a worldwide phenomenon being touted as the natural Prozac.
In Germany, positive Prostata-Tests product, which is taken as a tea or in the form of tablets, is being prescribed by doctors 25 times more than Prozac. German doctors just last year wrote 3 million prescriptions for the product.
The craze is also starting to catch up in the U. A study published in the United Positive Prostata-Tests shows that only 2. To appease his spirit, natives, acknowledging his fondness for honey, leave honey and pollen in positive Prostata-Tests hives. The result is re-colonization of these hives by certain species of bees. From the fear of phantasmagorical retribution comes the reintroduction of species to once-barren hives. The story of Bepkororoti is just one example of the way in which indigenous mythology contributes to biodiversity.
For many indigenous tribes, it is a human obligation to maintain the balance and health of the natural world. Nature is inclusive; positive Prostata-Tests beings are positive Prostata-Tests a part of the greater whole. In indigenous cultures, rituals and ceremonies serve to prevent overconsumption of natural resources; to these populations, environmental ethics are discernible in the very structure and organization of the natural world. For those who live deep in the jungles of the Amazon basin and other areas of great biodiversity, the forest acts not only as a home, but as a pharmacy and general store as well.
Studies have consistently demonstrated the importance of a diverse ecosystem to indigenous tribes. The Shuar use at least medicinal species in their pharmacoepeia. Given the limits of these resources, they operate efficiently.
An example is the Kayapo, who create trails in the woods and carry seeds and tubers to plant along the trails when they defecate. They are dependent upon their local ecosystem, and have derived positive Prostata-Tests great understanding of their surroundings from long-term cyclical observation over many years in which they have been positive Prostata-Tests to observe seasonally reoccurring phenomena.
In fact, often the positive Prostata-Tests understanding exceeds that of the Western scientist. Ethnobotanists — scientists who study the relationship between people and plants — have encountered native classifications of strains of wild species which, to positive Prostata-Tests trained eye, offered no tangible differences.
For example, the Barasana Indians of Amazonian Colombia can identify all tree species in their territory without having to refer to the fruit or flowers. It is through necessity that the natives make such recognitions. Different species serve different uses. With no written language, the indigenous orally transfer this knowledge from the elders to their students.
One ethnobotanist has determined that it is this very nonliterate tradition positive Prostata-Tests influences processes in which rationalistic knowledge is acquired about ecological associations. The forest serves not only as a home, but as a laboratory and school as well; it is the universe from which arises all indigenous social institutions and sacred rites. This is precisely what the indigenous have done for generations.
Today, indigenous agricultural and gathering practices continue to transform the landscape in manners which often encourage biodiversity and sustainable use. Studies have shown the effect of indigenous positive Prostata-Tests management and in situ plant positive Prostata-Tests on biodiversity: Gathering strategies such as rotation of gathering areas prevent the decrease or loss of some resources; enhancement strategies, such as sowing seeds in areas occupied by populations of wild plants or positive Prostata-Tests and of course, protection of plants through the elimination of competitors and predators also serve to transform the landscape.
As subsistence farmers, most indigenous engage in sustainable practices. Problems arise when economic pressures force tribes to engage in the growing of cash crops or when local resources have been plundered by outsiders of the community.
Then, as with most societies in similar circumstances, the indigenous are prone to overuse positive Prostata-Tests, overhunt game, and fell forests for timber. While ecosystem people are at risk to local catastrophes which could eliminate their resource base, the same catastrophe has a minimum impact upon the biosphere people, who can simply draw more heavily upon a different ecosystem.
Because of their lack of integration and a positive Prostata-Tests of independence from the environment, biosphere people may never develop the strong cultural ethics necessary for wise resource management. The next section of this paper explores the consequences of these conflicting world views.
Each year, an estimatedkm2 approximately 65, square miles of tropical forest is felled, often to satisfy the world market for tropical woods or to provide space for cattle ranching. Positive Prostata-Tests Eco Travels in Brazil alone, the forests are disappearing by an alarming rate of nearly 30, km2 approximately 11, square miles per year.
Often the destruction has been the result of government positive Prostata-Tests promoting cattle ranching and logging through tax incentives. Return of traditional land to the natives spawns great resentment in a country in which 45 percent of the land belongs to 1 percent of the population.
Lacking resources and the desire to enforce the law, the Brazilian government has stood by and allowed continued infiltration and exploitation of these demarcated lands. In October14 Ticunas were killed in an ambush by loggers. The Gorotire have experienced mercury poisoning due to its use in mining operations. But it positive Prostata-Tests not only those in search of riches who have negatively impacted the indigenous. For a long time, poorly-conceived development projects overseen by multilateral lending institutions such as the World Bank were responsible for the displacement and deaths of many indigenous peoples.
In this century alone, some 80 entire societies have vanished in Brazil. Yet extinction is only an extreme of other ongoing problems. In addition to loss of land and population decreases, many indigenous tribes face the loss positive Prostata-Tests their very identity. Acculturation has long detracted from cultural identity.
Now, the threat is even greater as generations of knowledge may be lost with the passing of elders positive Prostata-Tests have no students positive Prostata-Tests in continuing the ancient traditions. Yet, often it is the shaman who harbors the greatest knowledge of the forest and its products. One day the medicines that the missionaries send from the city will no longer arrive. The people will come to me to relieve their pains, to conquer the evil spirits that kill their children.
But I will be gone, and I will have taken my plants with me. How much are the rainforests worth? Hard to say. This amount was proposed by P. More than companies have been established here to collect foreign material, an activity that is elegantly called bioprospection, but others prefer to call biopiracy. According to Luiz Positive Prostata-Tests Arruda, a positive Prostata-Tests at Universidade de Manaus, Amazonas state capital, at least 20, plant samples are taken from the Amazon every year.
In the second, they get the patent for something that is being used freely. While the patent has legal value only in the country in which it was registered, it is normal that the rest of the world ends up accepting it. Afterwards, they industrialize them and resell them to the Third World Country with infinitely superior prices. Biopiracy can be very sophisticated and hardly noticeable.
Here is a classic example. Inthe American magazine National Geographic published an article about the medicinal uses of the tiki uba, a plant used by the Amazon Urueu-Wau-Wau Indians. No consideration or reward has been given to the Urueu-Wau-Waus, who are on the brink of extinction. Brazilian law against this kind of piracy has been vague and enforcement of it is non-existent. In spite of that, times seem to be changing. Biopiracy is nothing new in Brazil.
The most infamous case is that of Englishman Henry Alexander Wickham, who in stole rubber tree seeds, hiding them between banana leaves leading to a new plantation of the Hevea positive Prostata-Tests in the British colonies in Ceylon, Malaysia. In a few decades positive Prostata-Tests region positive Prostata-Tests become the positive Prostata-Tests exporter of latex, ruining in the process the rubber tree-based Amazon economy.
Long before that, right after the discovery of the land positive Prostata-Tests the Portuguese inthe discoverers themselves and then other Europeans just stole from the Indians the secret of how to positive Prostata-Tests a red pigment from pau-brasil brazil wood. During the World Summit on Ecology in Rio, the countries present signed the Convention on Biological Diversity, a document establishing that communities or positive Prostata-Tests must be paid royalties when companies develop products based on their natural resources or indigenous knowledge.
These peoples have not only taken from the land. They have positive Prostata-Tests to biodiversity by planting and transplanting. This assertion has important implications for those defending the rights of indigenous populations over certain knowledge or natural product.