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Abstract and Introduction Abstract Agent Orange, an herbicide widely used during the Vietnam War, has been linked to various health risks, including urologic malignancy. Exposed veterans are at risk for prostate cancer and may be entitled to compensation if diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Current research studies are aimed at mitigating prostate dysplasia and prostate cancer. Introduction Agent Orange Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code its name from the orangecolored stripe that was used to identify the contents of the 40 gallon barrel in which the chemical was shipped and stored. Agent Orange is an herbicide, which is the combination of 2,4-dichloro pheno xyacetic acid 2,4-D and 2,4,5—trichlorophenoxyacetic acid Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code mixed in equal parts Institute of Medicine [IOM], It was discovered in that 2,4,5-T was inadvertently contaminated during the manufacturing process with small amounts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin TCDD.
Known as Operation Ranch Hand, the military conducted intense Agent Orange spraying around military bases in Vietnam and Laos from — to clear the dense vegetation for base construction. It was sprayed from helicopters and planes, trucks and boats, Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code using backpack sprayers.
The most intensive use was between — It was determined that exposure to Agent Orange could be from direct skin contact, inhalation, or from eating food and crops contaminated with the chemicals. The government has estimated that approximately 3 million military personnel were exposed during the 9-year Vietnam War campaign.
Of those individuals, about 1. Public Law Vietnam veterans and their families had many questions involving their exposure to Agent Orange and sought assistance from Congress to investigate their health concerns. This law mandated the National Academy of Sciences to review scientific evidence on the possible health effects of exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides. The IOM convened a member committee in Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code Members were chosen because they were experts in their fields, had no conflicts of interest in the matter to be studied, and had not taken a public position on the potential health effects of herbicide exposure.
The IOM committee published their first report, titled "Veterans and Agent Orange," in and by law was required to perform biennial review for 10 years after the first report IOM, Their most recent report, "Veterans and Agent Orange Update ," was published in and is available to the public.
Prostate cancer is the second-most common cancer in men, surpassed only by nonmelanoma skin cancers.
Prostate cancer occurs more frequently in older men over 65 years Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code age and is rarely diagnosed before the age of The average age at the time of diagnosis is 67 years.
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, and about 2. Unfortunately, little is known about the definitive causes of prostate cancer.
There are few research studies involving Vietnam veterans and Agent Orange. Many existing studies involve subjects who were involved directly in either the manufacturing of the herbicides or in the application process. Additional information made available to the IOM committee responsible for biennial updates since has not changed the initial conclusion that there is limited or suggestive evidence of an association between Agent Orange exposure and prostate cancer IOM, Testicular cancer occurs more often in men under 40 years of age than it does in older men.
Caucasian men are at four times greater risk Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code compared to African-American men. Cryp torch idism undescended testes is the leading risk factor. Heredity and environmental risk factors have been inconsistently linked in Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code studies ACS, f. Upon review of the evidence, the committee responsible for VAO concluded there is inadequate or insufficient information to make an Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code between Agent Orange exposure and testicular cancer IOM, Bladder Cancer Urinary bladder cancer often includes cancer Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code the urethra, paraurethral glands, and other unspecified cancers of the urinary tract, and is statistically the most common urinary tract cancer.
ForACS a estimates 54, new cases of bladder cancer in men and 17, new cases of bladder cancer in women, expecting 15, deaths from bladder cancer overall, with about 10, male deaths and 4, femal deaths.
Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code cancer is the fourth ranked cancer in incidence in men in the U. IOM, Bladder cancer risk increases dramatically with age because it occurs mainly in older people.
This age group coincides with the current age group of the vast majority of Vietnam veterans with Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code Orange exposure.
The most important known risk Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code for bladder cancer is tobacco use, explaining approximately half of the bladder cancers in men and a third of the bladder cancers in women.
Occupational exposure to aromatic Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code and hydrocarbons used in the rubber, leather, Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code, paint, and printing industries are also associated with higher bladder cancer incidence.
Snails are known to contaminate lakes and ponds with the parasiteSchistosoma haematobium in Asia and Africa, which causes the urinary bladder infection referred to as schistosomiasis.
Urinary schistosomiasis affects many children and has been linked to bladder cancer Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code adults. This parasite has rarely been found in the U.
ACS, b. Based on current evidence, the IOM committee was unable to conclude that a link between Agent Orange exposure and bladder cancer exists.
There is insufficient evidence Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code determine Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code an association IOM, Renal Cancer Although the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter have different characteristics, they are group ed together because they are all exposed to filterable chemicals that appear in urine as they pass through the urinary system IOM, Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-CodeACS c estimates that 40, men and 24, women will be diagnosed with either renal cell carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis.
It is further predicted that about Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code, people Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code, men and 4, women will die from this malignancy ACS, c. Renal cancer is twice as common in men as in women, with African-American men having the highest incidence. It is most commonly seen in individuals over 50 years of age with the exception of Wilms tumor, which is a Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code carcinoma.
Risk factors include tobacco exposure, excessive acetaminophen Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code, obesity, kidney stones, and occupational exposure to asbestos, cadmium, or organic solvents ACS, d. Firefighters have been determined to have a high occupational risk for renal cancer IOM, As is the Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code with bladder cancer, the IOM reports that the incidence for renal cancer increases with age.
The peak Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code group is 65 to 69, followed by 60 to 64, and then by the to year-old age group. The IOM Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code again reviewed the scientific evidence and concluded that there is inadequate Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code insufficient evidence to make an association between Agent Orange exposure and renal cancer. This entitles them to a monthly disability payment from the federal government. Each veteran's medical Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code is reviewed individually every year.
Veterans are notified prior to a reduction in compensation Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code have the opportunity to provide medical evidence to support the claim of disability. The veteran is not required to receive treatment in a VA facility to receive compensation. In Florida, these veterans are exempt from property taxes on their primary residence.
Additional information about available resources regarding Agent Orange compensation may be found in. Table 1. A free clinical education guide entitled "Veterans and Agent Orange" see Figure 1 Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code an independent study program to educate health care providers on the unique health issues and concerns of veterans of the Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code War.
These lengthy reports may be read online or downloaded Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code in PDF file format for printing. Hard-bound versions are offered for purchase. Reprinted with permission. Research Opportunities There are several nutrients and nutrient-derived plant chemicals, such as green tea polyphenols, isoflavones, lycopene, and curcumin, that have been identified to modulate prostate carcinogenesis. The Department of Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code at the James A. Haley VA Hospital is involved in medical research in collaboration with the Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code.
The broad, long-term goal is to develop interventions that can prevent progression of prostate Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code in men at high risk for this disease. Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code active studies are currently open for enrollment to medically qualified veterans, and veterans interested in participating in these medical research studies are Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code being recruited for the possible prevention of prostate cancer.
Haley VA Hospital. ASAP is the more predictive dysplasia. Subjects are enrolled in this study for approximately one year with monthly monitoring visits. Polyphenon E is manufactured into capsules from the leaves of green tea into a precise dosage, and the subject takes this capsule twice per day along with a daily multi-vitamin.
Under strict protocol, visits occur monthly to evaluate any adverse reactions to the study medication, and laboratory tests are drawn to monitor Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code function. Subjects with ASAP on initial biopsy undergo repeat Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code biopsy at 6 months. All study participants undergo prostate biopsy at the end of the study. The goal Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code the study is to evaluate the safety Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code effectiveness of green tea polyphenols in controlling progression of Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code state cancer compared to placebo.
No FDA-approved treatment is currently Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code for men with prostate dysplasia. Interventions with green tea may potentially prevent progression to Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code cancer or slow prostate cancer progression similar to what is seen in Asian men who consume large amounts of green tea.
These novel interventions are currently under study, as Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code close surveillance to veterans Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code a condition that currently has no scientifically proven medical treatment available. Previous studies reported Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code Asians have the lowest risk for prostate cancer and noted that consumption of isoflavones, which are found in soy products and flax seed, may be a factor in this risk reduction Kumar et al.
Animal research has demonstrated that isoflavone consumption inhibits the growth of prostate cancer in laboratory mice, so it is posited that consumed isoflavones may also inhibit human prostate cancers Kumar et al.
While there may be multiple pathways by which isoflavones impact prostate Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code progression, a central hypothesis was developed by Kumar and associates Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code the Soy Study. The proposed theory will analyze whether there is an effect of soy supplementation using a constant dose of purified isoflavones vs.
It Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code theorized by Kumar et al. This increase should result in Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code of serum Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code hormone levels and can be measured by an Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code in serum estradiol and a decrease in free testosterone.
Potentially, this alteration will contribute to Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code decrease or stabilization of disease progression in Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.
This preliminary study inspired an additional hypothesis that the effectiveness of isoflavones modulating prostate carcinogenesis Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code be significantly higher in African-American men compared to Caucasian men Kumar et al. The prostate tissue will then be microscopically analyzed and cancer cell growth compared between the two ethnic groups. Summary Military veterans who served in Vietnam were exposed unknowingly to Prostata-Dysplasie ICD-Code Orange, which placed them at increased risk for developing prostate cancer.
Monetary compensation is awarded to those veterans diagnosed with prostate cancer when exposure to Agent Orange is confirmed. Many of these same veterans who risked their lives in Vietnam have demonstrated a willingness to continue to serve by volunteering to participate in ongoing medical research that may have an impact on the health of future generations.
Bladder cancer. Kidney cancer. Retrieved from www. Prostate cancer. Testicular cancer.