Kim Roelants. Moira K O'Bryan. The cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins CAP superfamily members are found in Prostata-Transkript Online remarkable range of organisms spanning each of the animal kingdoms. Within humans and mice, there are 31 and 33 individual family members, respectively, and although many are poorly characterized, the majority show a notable expression bias to the reproductive tract and immune tissues or are deregulated in cancers.
CAP superfamily proteins are most often secreted and have an extracellular endocrine or paracrine function and are involved in processes including the regulation of extracellular matrix and branching morphogenesis, potentially as either proteases or protease inhibitors; in ion channel regulation in fertility; as tumor suppressor or prooncogenic genes in tissues including the prostate; and in cell-cell adhesion during fertilization.
This review describes mammalian CAP superfamily gene expression profiles, phylogenetic Prostata-Transkript Online, protein structural properties, and biological functions, and it draws into focus their potential role in health and disease.
We conclude that overall protein structural conservation within the CAP superfamily results in fundamentally similar functions for the CAP domain in all members, yet the diversity outside of this core region dramatically alters target specificity and, therefore, the biological consequences. Figures - uploaded by Moira K O'Bryan. Content may be subject to copyright. A, Schematic representation of each of the mammalian CAP subfamily showing the location of CAP signature motifs and other sequence elements including C-terminal extension and other Prostata-Transkript Online.
B, Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAPs showing the major protein clades and subfamilies subclades discussed in this review. The depicted tree is a consensus phylogram Prostata-Transkript Online by a Bayesian analysis using a mixed model of amino acid substitution Numbers at major internal branches Prostata-Transkript Online Bayesian posterior probabilities; values close to, or equaling 1 indicate high branch credibility.
Proteins analyzed are from human, macaque, chimpanzee, dog, horse, cow, rat, and mouse. A homologous yeast protein sequence was Prostata-Transkript Online as outgroup to root the mammalian tree. Annotation of each protein included in the analysis is removed for Prostata-Transkript Online. The complete annotated tree with a full description of methodology is available online as supplementary Fig. Phylogenetic relationships of CRISP homologs from human, macaque, chimpanzee, dog, horse, cow, rat, and mouse, combined with a summary of regulated gene expression via androgens, protein modification, and predominant sites of protein Prostata-Transkript Online.
The tree is Prostata-Transkript Online from the complete mammalian CAP superfamily tree supplementary Fig. The monophyly of two groups of orthologs is highly supported gray boxeswith less resolution among the CRISP3 orthologs unboxed. The greater variability Prostata-Transkript Online tree structure among CRISP3 Prostata-Transkript Online with earlier analyses 39 may be related to the greater number Prostata-Transkript Online sequences included in this analysis.
Content uploaded by Moira K O'Bryan. Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related 1 Proteins—Roles. Gerard M. Gibbs, Kim Roelants, and Moira K. Monash Institute of Medical Research G. Department K. Excellence in Biotechnology and Development M. The cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and patho. Within humans and mice, there are CAP superfamily proteins are.
This review describes. The nine subfamilies of the mammalian. CAP superfamily include: the human glioma pathogenesis. We conclude that. CAP domain in all members, yet the diversity outside of this. Endocrine Reviews Prostata-Transkript Online Peptidase inhibitor 15 PI15 subfamily. Peptidase inhibitor 16 PI16 subfamily. Peptidase inhibitor R3H domain containing-like. C-type lectin CTL domains. CAP Proteins in Reproduction. Epididymal maturation and sperm capacitation. Female reproductive tract.
CAP Proteins in Cancer. Prostata-Transkript Online protein, Prostata-Transkript Online activation-associated. Pathogenesis related-1 Prostata-Transkript Online An immune function for mammalian CAPs. Chronic pancreatitis.
Printed in U. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Conclusions and Perspectives. Pr-1 proteins in plants 1—5. The Ag5 proteins are among the most abundant. The evolutionary diversity of the CAP superfamily was. Some 16 yr after recognition of this phylogenetic relation. CAP proteins have been identified in most. Many Prostata-Transkript Online.
Annotation of the human and mouse genomes has iden. Our phylogenetic analysis shows these can be. In this review, we will highlight the structure and biolog. The remarkable. Given the size of this superfamily. Because we are cognizant of the Prostata-Transkript Online likeli.
B, Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian CAPs showing the major protein clades. The depicted tree is a consensus phylogram obtained by a Bayesian analysis using a mixed. Numbers at major internal branches represent Prostata-Transkript Online posterior probabilities; values close to, or. Annotation of each Prostata-Transkript Online included in the analysis.
Lastly, we have described what is. For context, several of these sections. Although there is limited detail on the biological. This is a view that we hope will prove Prostata-Transkript Online be a useful basis. The CAP superfamily is also referred to as the sperm.
The CAP nomenclature was derived from the three major. SCP, more accurately reflects the diversity in the superfam. The C AP superfamily is characterized by several sig. Two additional Prostata-Transkript Online are apparent. Herein, we define these two additional conserved. The tertiary crystal structure of several CAP superfamily. They show that the. CAP motifs are present in a small, disulfide bond stabilized.
The presence of these. Using Prostata-Transkript Online CAP su. Within this extracellular envi. In the most broad sense, these involve regulating. Although a large number of proteins within the super.