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Boden Fortress Swedish : Bodens fästning is a modern fortress consisting of several major and minor forts and fortifications surrounding the city of BodenNorrbottenin northern Sweden. The fortress was originally intended to stop or delay attacks from the east or coastal assaults, which at the time of construction meant Russian attacks launched from Finland. It was primarily the expansion of the railway net in Norrlandwhich in turn was a consequence of the rising importance of the northern iron ore fields, that led to the increased strategic value of northern Sweden and the construction of the fortress.
Although the main forts were finished inmany of the supporting fortifications were not completed until the start of the First World War. Improvements Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod also continuously made during, and between, both World Wars. Eight fortified secondary artillery positions were constructed between the forts to give flanking support and to cover areas not in range of the main forts' artillery.
In addition, 40 bunkers for infantry, along with dugouts and other fortifications, were Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod to cover even more terrain. During the Second World War anti-tank gun emplacements and additional bunkers and shelters were built, and tens of kilometres of dragon's teeth were placed around the fortress and the city itself.
Owing to the end of the Cold War and the reduction of the threat from the Soviet UnionBoden Fortress became less important to the defence of Sweden, and began to be decommissioned. The last fort of the complex was decommissioned Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod 31 Decemberand is now used as a tourist attraction. All five forts as well as some of the supporting structures have been declared historic buildings, to be preserved for the future, by the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod government.
The Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod dominating theories of how to use fortifications in the operational perspective during the 18th and 19th century were the central fortress system centrala fästningssystemet and the peripheral fortress system perifera fästningssystemetthe latter also called the cordon system. The two systems were also known as central defence and peripheral defence. In short, one theory advocated many minor fortifications built to directly engage the enemy, while the other advocated only a few major fortifications built not to directly engage the enemy, but to support the troops that engaged the enemy.
In the beginning of the 19th century the peripheral system—at least in Sweden—was deemed unmodern,  due to the extremely long border and coastline of the country, which required a lot of personnel to maintain and support, leading to high costs and a neglectance of the more mobile armed forces.
Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod peripheral system was also meant to contain the enemy to a specific area, the coast and borders, but as time went and new tactics were taken into practice, the thin line of fortifications would be easily penetrated by the enemy forces, and when the enemy had advanced through the peripheral line, there would not be enough troops in Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod hinterland to stop the attacker.
The fourth principle, the Assistance of the Theatre of Waris naturally an advantage on the side of the defensive. Sweden had just lost one third of its population, as Russia had conquered the eastern part and created the Grand Duchy of Finland out of it during the Finnish War in — Shortly after, inthe west flank had been secured by the personal union with Norwayand after the Napoleonic Warsthe former main enemy of Sweden in the south, Denmarkwas no longer any threat.
The Swedish Navy was considered superior to the Russian in the Gulf of Bothniaso a seaborne invasion against the coast of Norrland was not likely. And even though Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod Russians had invaded northern Sweden via Finland in the previous war, the general opinion was that in case Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod a new war, their main attack would be conducted towards Stockholm and southern Sweden.
This opinion led to the thought of finding a good rear defence area where the Estates and the Swedish government could move if the capital was in danger. This in turn naturally strengthened the central defence theory. The core land Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod would be the place from where Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod main part of the field army would conduct its operations, supported by a few fortresses.
The area between the two large lakes of Vänern and Vättern was the choice for this core land, with approximately the same border as Skaraborg County.
The central fortress became Karlsborg Fortress at Karlsborgwhile the two operational fortresses Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod to be located at either end of Vättern never were built due to lack of funds. While Norrland was not supposed to be included in this main central defence strategy, studies on how to defend this major part of the country were still conducted. However, northern Sweden was generally considered of very limited military interest and unsuitable for larger military operations due to the bad state of most of the roads, the large uninhabited areas, the large rivers and the very limited economical gain that the lands provided.
The road network north of this area consisted of the large coastal road—the only major north—south road—from Haparanda and all the way through Norrland down to Gävle. All the other major roads exclusively ran southeast—northwest—following the run of the large rivers—before ending in wilderness and thus did not provide any route further west into Norway and on to the Atlantic coast.
At least according to some officers—both Swedish and Norwegian—which in the second half of the s noticed the increased strategic importance Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod northern Scandinavia and Lapland as an effect of the construction of the railway lines in the area. The stretch was very lucrative, as it considerably eased the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod of iron ore from the ore fields around Kiruna and Gällivare down to the coast for further transport by boat.
Another English company had in the s tried to construct a combination of a railway and a canal—the English Canal —for the stretch, but went bankrupt before their plans were completed. The company contracted for the new railway line experienced similar economic difficulties and the Swedish state decided to buy the nearly completed line to finish it in The decision to complete the railway through to Boden sparked interest in Norrbotten among the members of the Swedish General Staff, and the chief, Axel Rappeconducted a survey trip to the region in His recommendations, largely based on his and the General Staff's military planning, not to build the line along the coast, or build it all the way to the Swedish-Finnish border at Haparanda were later followed.
The Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod year, inRappe wrote a memorandum that explained in more detail the budget, which suddenly had risen to 4. The plan included a reserve battalion of 1, men, an artillery battalion of men, an engineer company of men, and supply and depot personnel. Although Rappe did not completely rule out the possibility of a German or British attack on southern Sweden if the opportunity arose, he felt that Russia was the most realistic threat.
Rappe had played down the strategic importance of the Ofoten and Iron Ore Lines and played up the importance of the main railway line to Boden, which was under discussion at that time, to speed up its completion. The railway to Boden was nearly finished bynegating the need for Rappe to play that political game any longer. During the following years a fierce debate raged between the supporters of the army on one side and the navy on the other.
The proposed expansion of Swedish fortifications nationwide, which in turn would see less money spent on the fleet, upset many naval proponents, amongst them Wilhelm Dyrssen —later Minister for Defence —and Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod von Otter —later Admiral and Prime Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod of Sweden.
They argued that the theory of central defence would leave large swathes of Swedish Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod in the hands of the enemy, and instead suggested smaller fortifications at the border, along with a strengthened navy. The committee, led by chairman Jesper Crusebjörndiscussed and examined the defence of Norrland thoroughly, and also travelled to Boden Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod they climbed most of the heights and mountains that were considered for the fortifications.
The report calculated the costs at 8. The plan gained support from the first Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod but not from the second chamber, but when put to a joint vote of both chambers, the proposition passed.
Even though the result did not really mean anything concrete for the possible construction in Boden, it was considered a great success for that question as well. Despite this progress, Axel Rappe left as Minister for War indue to setbacks on other issues. He was replaced by Jesper Crusebjörn, who inherited the Boden fortification project. The result of the votes—held Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod May a date which can be seen as the birth of the fortress—in Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod first and second chambers were the same as the previous year.
The first chamber was overwhelmingly for the proposal with the result —16, but the proponents feared a defeat in the second chamber. During the debate both the Prime Minister of Sweden Erik Gustaf Boström and Jesper Crusebjörn threatened to Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod from their posts if the proposal was not accepted, to exert pressure on the second chamber.
Boström expressed the following that day:. For believe me gentlemen, I consider this question so important that in the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod moment I get the definite answer that it is not embraced by the Swedish Riksdag, I will no longer stay in this Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod.
Even after this, the second chamber voted against Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod proposal, with a vote count of 73— Neither Boström nor Crusebjörn resigned, since after further discussion and voting it was decided that the matter should be settled by a joint vote. The first chamber voted in favor, —14, while the second chamber voted against, 87—, with a total outcome of — in favour of constructing Boden Fortress and allocating Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod funds needed to start construction.
The Organisation for the Fortified Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod of Upper Norrland Föreningen Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod Övre Norrlands fasta försvar and the Swedish Women's Organisation Svenska Qvinnoföreningen had collected 71, kronor out of thekronor needed for land purchase.
The main inspiration for the design—in which the forts are blasted into the mountains rather than constructed on top of them—came from Vaberget Fortress near Karlsborg Fortress.
Vaberget Fortress was built in the s and its southern fort was the first fort in the world that fully used the protection provided by the bedrock itself by having all of its functions embedded in the mountain. The plan for the Fortifications at Boden Befästningarna vid Boden —which was the term used until the First World War when the present name Boden Fortress came into widespread use  —was largely based on the proposal laid forward by the Fortification Committee ofwith only minor modifications.
Even before any construction work had started the cost of the forts had been estimated to exceed the previous calculations by fifty percent. In Decemberonly few months after the first blasting work that had been done at Gammelängsberget in July the cost for the four forts northeast of the river was expected to be sixty-five percent more expensive than the initial calculation. The fort at Mjösjöberget followed suit on 3 April Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod the last fort to get a confirmed blueprint was the fort at Rödberget, on 19 May The last proposed fort, at Paglaberget, was deleted from the plans in —along with the batteries at Fällberget and Slumpberget as well as the fortifications at Avan and Svartbyträsket—before any work on the fort had started, due to the proposal of the new Fortification Committee ofwhich was formed following the reports of the large rise in Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod.
All work on the large masses of bedrock was conducted by hand, without Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod help of powered machines, as the first power station in Boden was not constructed until Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod ten years later in Creating patrol trenches and placements for the turrets on the top of Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod forts was also work done early on.
The teams of workers would first bore down in the bedrock using pinch bars and sledgehammers, then use black powder to blast the rock into manageable pieces which could be transported away from the site, using wheelbarrows, horse-drawn carriages and in some cases Decauville railways. When the ditch, or parts of it, had been completed, work started on the inner part of the fort by boring horizontally from the bottom of the ditch into the mountain itself.
This work was a lot harder—the cost for each cubic metre of blasted tunnel was five times the cost of a cubic metre of blasted ditch—both due to the confined space in the tunnels and the risk of damaging the bedrock. The use of black powder instead of dynamite reduced the risk of bedrock damage, but it also increased the time needed to complete the tunnels.
When the ditches and tunnels were finished, concrete Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod started, including flooring, construction of Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod systems in forts with second floors, staircases, partition walls and counterscarp galleries.
The order was for the 8. The parts were delivered by rail up to Boden and unloaded with the help of gantry cranes. As the roads of the time could not handle the weight during summer, transport had to Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod until winter when the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod had hardened the ground.
The turret parts were lifted onto sleighs drawn by 16—30 horses depending on the situation. The toughest stretch, up the mountain, Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod handled with the help of block and tackle Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod, the ditch was crossed on temporarily built sturdy Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod bridges and the mounting of the turret was finished with cranes.
The first artillery test firing was conducted on 15 January when the guns at Gammelängsberget fired Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod first rounds,  and all five forts "were in a defensible Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod by Apart from the forts, the garrison itself was heavily expanded during the initial construction years and became the largest garrison in Sweden, taking an exceptional position in Swedish military history of the 20th century; even at the start of the 21st century, Boden was the largest garrison city in the Swedish Army.
These works were started in and were finished during the First World War. The Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod fortifications for infantry consisted of 44 concrete bunkers, 23 dugouts and 26 fortified observation posts.
The construction of these started in Many officers still considered the fortress to have inadequate and too few fortifications for the infantry, Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod one officer compared the fortress to "a shoe, which is too large Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod the foot.
The later was built to accommodate easier access to Rödberget Fort and the military training area on the southwestern shore of Lule River and was at the time of completion the longest single span road bridge in Sweden. Both internal and external communication systems as well as means of reconnaissance were needed, both directed by the commandant located in the headquarters Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod. The building—finished in —had three floors, the upper two functioned as home and workplace for the commandant and the chief of staff, while the ground floor had extra thick walls and functioned as the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod post for the fortress.
Liaison with higher commands was at first maintained by regular post, telegraph and telephone. The fortress' radio station was finished byoriginally for the Swedish Navy and was located south of Degerberget on a bog now known as the "Radio Mire" Radiomyren. The first Swedish radio broadcasts were sent from this building. At the end of the Second World War, around such pigeons were stationed in Boden. The pigeons were part of the balloon department whose main task was to operate the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod of the garrison.
Most parts of the fortress were finished during the First World Warand many minor works were started and completed during the course of the war. Even though Sweden remained neutral during the First and Second World Warthe start and outcome of both had large impact on Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod fortress.
Finland 's independence during the First World War created a buffer state between Sweden and Imperial Russia's successor state, the Soviet Unionwhich radically changed the strategic value of northern Sweden, put the usefulness of Boden Fortress into question.
Only the most basic needs were satisfied during the interwar period ; even apparent needs—based on the experiences from the war—such as better air defence and fortifications to halt or temporarily impede attacks by armoured forces were neglected.
Thanks to local commanders, construction of new fortifications and improvements to already existing ones were done with the help of garrisoned troops. Engineer companies built new shelters and trenches as training, and the telephone network was improved and completed by the garrisoned telegraph company.
This cut the cost Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod as the only expenditure was the Prostatakrebsbehandlung Boden Novgorod material.