Russia: Putin visits arms manufacturer in Nizhny Novgorod
During the Russian Empirein Nizhny Novgorod became the country's main trading city. Inthe city hosted the largest All-Russia exhibition. Then it was the industrial center of the Soviet Union. During the World War IIthe city sent to the front a huge amount of military equipment and ammunition. Therefore, the German air force bombed the city for 3 years.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Unionthe city was renamed back to Nizhny Novgorod. In Russiathe city became a political center and the capital of the Volga Federal District. Now the city is the center of information technology  and develops tourism.
In the Oka estuary formed a comfortable place to gather Murom and Suzdal armies for war against Volga Bulgaria. The following year he decided to establish an important place for Russia and founded a city Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten the mouth of the Oka. The name of the city - Nizhny Novgorod, that is, the " Lower Newtown " - led historians to think about the existence of an older city.
The hypothesis of the "Oldtown" was supported by historians. There were versions of the origin of the city from the Bulgars, Mordovian-Erzyas Erzya language: "Obran osh"  or Russians "Suzdal old city". Archaeological data does not support any of the hypotheses. Since there are no earlier buildings on the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin or in the vicinity of the city.
The adjective " lower " Nizhny appeared in the city's name in later chronicles. There are several assumptions about its appearance:. The foundation of Nizhny Novgorod was the beginning of an active expansion of Russian expansion into the Mordovian lands.
The first wooden fortress occupied an advantageous military-strategic position. She was on Sentry Hill and was well protected. On the one hand was a deep ravine, on the other side there were steep cliffs of the Volga shore.
In the first years, two white stone churches were built in the fortress. In the Cathedral of St. Michael the Archangel was built. In FebruaryGorodets and his surroundings were attacked by one of the independently operating detachments scattered throughout the territory of the Vladimir Grand Duchy after the capture of the capital.
For a short period of time, a " veche republic" was established in Nizhny Novgorod in the style of Veliky Novgorod. In the last third of the 19th century, the Gorodets Principality emerged from the Suzdal Principality. In his subordination was Nizhny Novgorod. Andrey Alexandrovich became the prince. This was the third son of Alexander Nevsky. The Principality did not last long. At the beginning of the 14th century, its cities were subordinated to the Vladimir Grand Prince.
In there was a war for the throne between Vladimir and Moscow princes. His brother Boris became the regent. Inafter the death of Boris Danilovich, Nizhny Novgorod once again became subordinate to the Vladimir principality for a short period of time. After the conquest of the Tver Principality, Khan Uzbek divided the Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten possessions.
Most of it he gave the Prince of Moscow. Part of the lands, including the former Gorodets Duchy, went to Alexander Vasilyevich. After his Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten inthe princedom was given to the Moscow prince Ivan Kalita, who ruled Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten with the help of governors.
An independent Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal Principality was formed, which occupied a vast territory. In the east, its border ran along the Sura Riverin the southeast and south - along the rivers Pyana and Seryozha.
The main stronghold in the east was the Kurmysh Fortress, founded in Along the border stood small fortresses, in which border guards Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten.
The remains of such fortresses are found along the Piana River in Buturlinsky and Sergachsky districts. Inthe Horde attacked Nizhny Novgorod. In the battle on Pyana Riverthe Russian army suffered a severe defeat from the Horde prince Arapsha. Dmitry of Suzdalwho remained without troops, fled to Suzdal. The Nizhny Novgorod army fled to the neighboring Gorodets. On August 5,the Horde army conquered Nizhny Novgorod.
The city was burnt. A year later, on July 24,the city was re-conquered. When the Tatar army approached Nizhny Novgorod, Prince Dmitry Konstantinovich, wishing to save his land from ruin, sent his sons Vasily and Semyon to him, who went with the army and persuaded Moscow to surrender.
The final accession of the principality to the possessions of Moscow took place at the end of the s. Inthe city was devastated during the invasion of the emir of the White Horde Edigu. In he was conquered by the troops of the Kazan khan Ulugh Muhammad.
He has a standing army and is a gathering place for troops in attacks on the Kazan Khanate. At the same Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten, a stone Kremlin is being built instead of a wooden fortress. In Septemberunder the walls of the unfinished Kremlin, the attack of the Nogais and the Kazan Tatars under the leadership of the Kazan Khan Muhammad-Amin was repulsed. After that, there was a massacre between the Nogais and the Tatars and the khan was forced to Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten the siege.
After the conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terriblethe role of Nizhny Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten becomes insignificant. InIvan the Terrible divided the Russian state into oprichnina and zemshchina. Thus the city became zemstvo. Sergiuscontinues to support Moscow. Then, almost the whole country and Moscow were in the Polish occupation. Inthere were no Poles in Nizhny Novgorod. Citizens elected the zemstvo elder mayor Kuzma Minin. He began calls for a liberation struggle among the people of the Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten.
Then he was supported by the city council of Nizhny Novgorod, voivodesclergy and servicemen. By decision of the city council, a general meeting of Nizhny Novgorod citizens was appointed. They gathered in the Kremlin. Minin appealed to the people with an appeal to stand on the liberation of the Russia from foreign enemies.
After that, the people began to make voluntary donations to create the army. In addition, the decree was issued to hand over a part of personal property. Minin was instructed to lead the collection of funds and their distribution among the warriors of the future army. Then he raised the question of choosing a commander.
At the second congress, the citizens decided to ask the head of the people's army of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The prince approached for the role of commander of the militia. He was a Rurikovich in the twentieth generation.
Pozharsky arrived in Nizhny Novgorod on October 28, and immediately, together with Minin, began organizing the army. Pozharsky and Minin continued to collect coffers and warriors, to seek help in different cities. After this, authorities were formed, which were not subordinate to the Moscow Seven boyars.
However, this state of affairs did not suit the Poles and the seven boyars. Several attempts were made to eliminate the new power, but this did not happen. As the people's army moved towards Moscow, the cities were liberated from the Polish occupation, and the provisional power of Prince Pozharsky was established Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten them.
On this occasion, on October 22 November 4, a holiday was instituted in Russia in honor of the Our Lady of Kazan. In today's Russia this day is celebrated as the Unity Daysince November 4, In the 17th century, under Patriarch Nikonthere was a church split in the Orthodox Church. Because of this, numerous settlements Prostatamassage Basis in Nizhny Novgorod private Nachrichten Old Believers were formed in the vicinity of Nizhny Novgorod.
A lot of them were on the Kerzhenets River. To eliminate the split of churches in Nizhny Novgorod inthe diocese is founded.
After the regional reform, Nizhny Novgorod has become a gubernatorial city since Inthe episcopal chair was appointed archimandrite Pitirim, who founded Hellenic-Greek and Slavic-Russian church schools. In the city again visited Peter the Great, celebrating here the day of its 50th anniversary. Then he went to the Persian campaign. In the city was visited by the Empress Catherine the Great. She did not like the city very much. She put it this way:. During her stay in the city she was introduced to the local inventor-mechanic Ivan Kulibin.
Subsequently, he was invited to the capital's palace.