Staphylococcus epidermidis part 1 with sound!
Linda Crampton is a writer and teacher with a first class honors degree in biology. She often writes about the scientific basis of disease. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a normal component of our skin and mucous membrane flora and often causes no problems. It may even help us. Under certain conditions, however, it produces harmful and sometimes deadly infections. Researchers have recently discovered that some strains of the species are resistant to multiple antibiotics and are hard to treat.
The bacterium has long been considered a nuisance in hospitals and Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft facilities because it contaminates patient specimens, but it may have entered a new and dangerous phase of its existence. Depending on the situation, the bacterium may be possibly helpful, apparently neutral, mildly harmful, or potentially deadly.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is unicellular and is classified as a coccus, which means its body consists of a spherical cell. The cocci are arranged in grape-like clusters. The species name refers to the fact that the bacterium is often found on the outer layer of the skin, or the epidermis.
The species is non-motile, gram-positive appearing purple after the gram staining techniqueand coagulase-negative unable to make an enzyme called coagulase. The bacterium is also found inside the body on mucous membranes. These membranes line cavities and tubes that lead to the outside world. Mucous membranes often secrete mucus, to a greater or lesser extent. Mucus is a protective and lubricating substance. A pathogen is a microbe that causes disease. When conditions are suitable—which generally occurs when the host and the immune system are weakened in some way—the bacterium makes us ill.
The infection may be serious. The bacterium is a special problem in hospitals and other care facilities. Since Staphylococcus epidermidis can infect different areas in the body, symptoms of the infection vary. As with any other health problem, if someone experiences severe, recurring, or prolonged symptoms of ill health, a doctor should be consulted to obtain a diagnosis and treatment. Staphylococcus epidermidis lives in the epidermis or the upper layer of the skin. The epidermis contains no blood vessels.
If the bacterium reaches the blood vessels in the underlying dermis, it may spread to other parts of the body and cause disease. Like some other bacteria, S. This is one reason Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft it can be dangerous. In a biofilm, bacteria are surrounded by a slimy and sticky material that is attached to a surface. The film protects the bacterial cells and makes them very hard to attack with antibiotics.
The film is technically known as an extracellular matrix and is produced by the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft it contains. It consists of polysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
Dental plaque is a form of biofilm. It can be removed mechanically by brushing. Other films in the body can be much harder to remove. Biofilms Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft form on hip replacements and on medical catheters and valves implanted in the body, Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft example. Some bacteria produce biofilms in wounds on the skin and in tissues within the body. The bacteria inside a film are active, releasing chemicals into their immediate environment that enable them to communicate with one another and coordinate their activity.
They are Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft able to feed on nutrients that enter the film. Narrow channels that allow nutrient chemicals to enter have been found in some biofilms.
These channels may also release wastes and toxins made by the bacteria. Some bacterial cells are released from the mature colony.
These travel through the body and eventually establish new colonies inside biofilms. Biofilms can be found on surfaces outside Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft body as well as inside Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft, such as on food preparation surfaces that are inadequately cleaned, in pipes, and in bodies of water.
They are sometimes a major problem. Even when it's not in a biofilm, Staphylococcus epidermidis is resistant to many antibiotics. Researchers have discovered that strains with a high tendency to form biofilms have a higher degree of antibiotic resistance than those with a low tendency. The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a natural process. Humans are speeding up the process by the overuse and misuse of the medications.
A gene is a segment of a DNA molecule that codes for a particular protein and controls a specific feature in the body. The code is "written" in a sequence of chemicals called nitrogenous bases. A bacterium and a human has many Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft.
Each gene exists in variant forms known as alleles. Mutations are genetic changes that are produced by mistakes made during DNA replication or by factors such as radiation or the influence of specific chemicals. DNA replication Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft place before a bacterium divides to produce offspring. As a result of mutations and the arrival of new DNA, a bacterium may develop or pick up an allele that is able to give it resistance to a particular antibiotic.
If a group of bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic, individuals that are sensitive to the medication's effects die. If any of the bacteria have the allele that gives them resistance to the antibiotic, Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft survive the treatment. The survivors reproduce if they aren't destroyed by the immune system and pass a copy Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft the beneficial allele to their offspring.
The offspring then repeat the process. The allele gradually spreads through the bacterial population.
Eventually, the majority of the population will be resistant to the effects of the antibiotic. Antibiotics are an essential treatment for some illnesses and should be used when necessary. It's important that the antibiotic is taken for the time prescribed, even if a person feels better when some of the medication is left.
The white circles in the dishes above contain antibiotics. The bacteria in the dish on the left are sensitive to Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft of the antibiotics. The bacteria in the dish on the right are resistant to Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft of the antibiotics and sensitive to the others.
The recent research on antibiotic resistance in S. Researchers from the University of Melbourne examined hundreds of Staphylococcus epidermidis specimens from seventy-eight hospitals Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft the world. They found multi-drug resistant forms of the bacterium in samples from ten countries. Strains of a bacterial species have minor genetic differences from one another. These differences are Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft significant enough to cause the division of the bacterium into different species, but they may be significant with respect to their effect on humans.
At the moment, S. It's certainly not inevitable that people in these categories become infected, that they experience serious symptoms from the infection if it does develop, or that any unpleasant symptoms must be due to an S. If unexplained symptoms do appear, however, a doctor should be consulted.
Patients are generally seriously weakened by another factor before succumbing to the effects of the bacteria at the moment. The fact that some people die from the infection is sad news. The situation may become even worse if antibiotic resistance in the species increases or if resistant strains spread. It can be deadly, but it's usually in patients who already are very sick in hospital As might be expected, doctors and scientists are trying to minimize the possibility that a bacterial biofilm will form on a joint replacement such as an artificial hip.
The University of Melbourne researchers say that one surprising discovery related to S. The antibiotics that were explored with respect to the above observation were rifampin also known as rifampicin Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft, vancomycin, and teicoplanin.
The last two antibiotics belong to a different chemical family from rifampin and are known as glycopeptide antibiotics. The researchers say that the strains of S. Until quite recently, vancomycin has been thought of as a powerful and effective medication that works when other antibiotics don't.
Unfortunately, multiple species of bacteria are becoming resistant to it. The existence of multiple drugs to attack bacteria is important. A patient with an S. The general idea behind giving two antibiotics at once is that if one fails to work or is only partially successful, the bacterium may still be killed by the other medication.
If the bacterium is successfully killed, the patient is cured. In addition, the chance of antibiotic resistance developing in the bacterial population may be decreased. Even though the bacterium may have been resistant to one of the two drugs, it was destroyed by the other one and therefore can't reproduce or transfer DNA to other bacteria. The failure of this strategy and the drugs could have serious effects. Staphylococcus epidermidis infection is difficult to treat because the bacterium has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics.
The resistance of bacteria to substances designed to destroy them is a worrying development. We could be heading for a serious situation with regards to disease prevention and treatment. Removing a medical device coated with a biofilm or surgically removing tissue covered by a film might Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft a Staphylococcus epidermidis infection, but this may not be the case if bacteria have left the film and travelled to other areas of the body.
Antibiotics may still be needed in order to kill the bacteria left in the body. Researchers are searching for new substances to kill bacteria that cause disease. There are some signs of hope, but much Staphylococcus epidermidis in Prostata-Saft research is needed.