The Motherland Calls: Drone buzzes gigantic Battle of Stalingrad monument
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Martinsen, J. Catteau, 1. IXvitaprost Kerzen Volgograd. Dostoevsky and Others. Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov "Egoism was the sole, sacred rule of life Merchants became rulers, and the govemment vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd into a stock-company. Odoevsk-y, Russian Nights Russian literature and Dostoevsky in particular have been engaged - more than other European literatures, perhaps - vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd point out vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd to a brighter future, or, alternatively, to warn of coming disasters.
Dosto- evsky's "prophecies", usually linked to the Demons, the messages of Zosima, the "Ridiculous Man" and others illustrate both negative and positive aspects of such attempts to predict what is yet to come.
Dosto- evsky' s acquaintance with radical thinking, in no small measure based on his experiences in Geneva, influenced his negative views of coming po- litical disasters. Predictions concerning the rise and fall of nations, existed in Dostoevsky' s time. Odoevsky, Russkie noch!
Danilevsky were both well-known to Dostoevsky. Let us first turn to Dostoevsky 's view of America - i. The hatred voiced in the fu-st motto comes from the mouth of Dmitrii Karamazov who, while in prison, thinks of an escape to America. Having spent there three years, he would then return to Russia, because, "The devil take them, they are not my vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd, not to my taste! The two seem to be incompatible. The only other reason Dmitrii gives is the prac- tical orientation of American society, -"Over there all of them to the last man are sort of unlimited machinists, But before that takes place, he would retum for a final conversation with Alesha, "even from America".
One may surmise that in Ivan's understanding of American society, it stands for a thoroughly rationalistic and atheistic vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd of life where Ivan could freely put his ideas into practice. Translations here and elsewhere by the author R. The quotation from Crime and Punishment on p. GibianNew York Brief references and brief original texts will appear in parentheses in the text.
Lack of space does not permit a discussion of British liberalism, e. Man- chesterism. Dostoevski did harshly criticize deprivation and impoverishment in London in his Winter Notes on Summer Impressions. He was also well vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd of Dickens' descriptions in his tales and novels, yet he did not generalize as in the case of the USA.
What is Wrong with America? At any rate, the result would be the same: it will end most appropriately in suicide. At this point vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd will remember Svidrigailov's metaphor for committing suicide - "going to America! The word "America" is used five times in this connection!
Svidrigailov earlier had suggested to the victim of his sexual advances to escape with vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd to "America or Switzerland America stands for moral or actual suicide, Swit- zerland for a naive, Rousseau'an idyl. We remember that Prince Myshkin grew up in Switzerland and retumed there after the murder of Nastasia! Raskofnikov himself at one point is urged to consider fleeing to America by Svidrigailov!
Run off, young man. Vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd explains that they wanted to try out the life of American workers and "in this manner to check on the basis of personal experience on our own bodies the plight of man in his most difficult circumstances The italicized words convey in a vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd Dostoevskian manner the author's rather negative understanding of America as, we may assume, the most oppressive and exploitative society existing. This implied criticism is vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd panded when Shatov adds that the two of them initially accepted every- thing enthusiastically: "We had praise for everytlung, spiritism, the laws of lynching, pistols, vagabonds.
This adds a fiftii aspect: exploitation by the employers. This aspect, we could also name it greed for money, is raised to the status of a leading feature of American life. This list of potential or real immigrants to America would not be complete without mentioning the adolescent in the novel The Adolescent who also toys with the idea of going to America when he realizes the near impossibility of proving his innocence after being accused of theft in the gambling establishment.
Versilov reveals the motiva- tions of the adolescent: "Now you would like high life, set fire to some- thing, smash it, rise even above Russia, rush on like a thunderstorm and leave everybody frightened and delighted and you yourself, you would hide in the Northamerican States. Cf Notebooks, p. Interesting is a phrase referring to the adolescent which appears only in the Notebooks: "to America or kill himself" p. Once again going to Amer- ica is equal to committing suicide!
By the way, vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd only the hero of the novel, but also his friend Efun Zverev thinks of possibly going to Amer- ica! Dolinin, Poslednie romany Dostoevskogo: He acts as the author's spokesman: "To run away to America from your fatherland - this is baseness, worse than baseness - it's stupidity.
This may give us some indication of the views current in Russia with which Dostoevsky came into contact in his formative years. The rise of the American colonies to the status of an independent republic, as well as the Rousseau'an sentiment manifesting itself in the veneration of untouched nature and noble savages, had helped to focus interest vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd the vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd nation.
At the time when sentimental vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd preromantic literature were predominant in Russian society, there existed a rather posi- tive picture of primeval nature and innocent savages characterized by a naive and romantic understanding on the Rousseau'an model. As for European immigrants, the future Americans - Russian writers of the time meant Red Indians when they wrote "Americans"! Novikov said of the vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd revolution" that it belonged to the "most important events of our age.
Pribavlenie, But here we suffer! Apart from Washington, it was Thomas Jefferson who was equally highly praised by the liberal intelligentsia, and later, following the Napo- leonic wars, by the friture decembrists! One of the best-known Russian works dealing with America in the 's was a comedy authored by Krylov who wrote it in collaboration with A.
Kliushin, entitled The Americans Amehkancy, ; the title meaning "Indians"! Understandably Rus- sians at that time depended on foreign sources for information conceming America. Petersbuig that drew a very positive picture of the "American revolution". Prevost's work praised George Washington and gave an en- thusiastic appraisal of the democratic nature of American life. Pavel P. Svin'ina writer and diplomat, spent the years in America as secretary to the Russian ambassador A.
After his return he published two essays based on his American experiences in which became part of his book Essay about a pictur- esque journey across North America, pubhshed the same year.
The negative view of America found an early representative in Radishchev who had much praise, as we have seen, for the liberties and independence of the new state, but nevertheless did not close his eyes to the less positive features. In vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd famous Vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd from St. Tocqueville was an as- tute and impartial observer who had spent almost two years in the USA on a government mission vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd inspect American prisons and penitentiaries.
He saw in democratic government the model for the future development of European states. Yet he was afraid of the vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd unlimited power of majority rule fearing that clever demagogues might influence public opinion and determine the results of elections.
He saw the cause for this in a boundless egoism and a passion for comfort, in greed, hypocrisy and envy between people in America. In bis "Philosophical Letter" pubhshed in Teleskopc. Dostoevsky was 15 years old at that time and an avid reader. Chapter "Kiiotilov". It is understandable that Russians liked to refer to and comment on this passage as we shall see. The continuous popular- ity of Tocqueville's study is proved by the fact that both Dostoevsky and Tolstoy mentioned him in their novels!
In The Demons we read that old Stepan Trofimovich used to walk in the garden with Tocqueville in his pocket; Tolstoy lets us know vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd Aima Karenina had read his study as a "fashionable vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd serious book"!
It was in the year of publication of Tocqueville's book that unfa- vourable comments on America began to appear. In ajournai published in French in St. He considered W. Ir- ving and J. This view was echoed in the widely read Library for Reading Biblioteka dlia chteniia which pub- Ushed a review of American poetry still in the same year vol. The opposition America versus Russia actually was not so new. It was already in that Ivan Kireevsky wrote in his "Survey of Russian Literature for the year ": "In vitaprost Kerzen Volgograd enlightened mankind two nations do not participate in the universal inertness: two nations, young, fresh, bud- ding with hope: these are the United States and our fatherland,"' antici- pating Tocqueville's similar words, - but as yet without attaching any moral qualifications!
Satin, a friend of Belinsky, also stressed the utilitarian bent of mind in a letter to his friend in December "They love science - because it is useful; they love children, a wife, because they are usefril. They love money God himself, he wrote, was for Americans just a "usefril prejudice".