Dino BPH test
A hernia is the abnormal exit of tissue or an organsuch as the bowelthrough the wall of the cavity in which it normally resides. Risk factors for the development of a hernia include: smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseobesitypregnancyperitoneal dialysiscollagen vascular diseaseand previous open appendectomyamong others.
Groin hernias that do not cause symptoms in males do not need to be repaired. By far the most common hernias develop in the abdomenwhen a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a BPH Hund 18 hole, or "defect", through BPH Hund 18 adipose tissueor abdominal organs covered with peritoneummay protrude.
Another common hernia involves the spinal discs and BPH Hund 18 sciatica. A hiatus hernia occurs when the BPH Hund 18 protrudes into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm. Hernias may or may not present with either pain at the site, a visible or BPH Hund 18 lump, or in some cases more vague symptoms resulting from pressure on an organ which has become "stuck" in the hernia, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction.
BPH Hund 18 tissue usually enters a hernia first, but it may be followed or BPH Hund 18 by an organ. Hernias are caused by a disruption or BPH Hund 18 in the fascia, or fibrous tissue, which forms the abdominal wall. It is possible for the bulge associated with a hernia to BPH Hund 18 and go, but the defect in the tissue will persist. Symptoms and signs vary depending on the type of hernia.
Symptoms may or may not be present in some inguinal hernias. In the case of reducible hernias, a BPH Hund 18 in the groin or in another abdominal area can often BPH Hund 18 seen and felt. When standing, such a bulge becomes more obvious. Besides the bulge, other symptoms include pain in the groin that may also include a heavy or dragging sensation, and in men, there BPH Hund 18 sometimes pain and swelling in the scrotum around the testicular area.
Irreducible abdominal hernias or incarcerated hernias may be painful, but their most relevant symptom is that they cannot return to the abdominal cavity when pushed in. They may be chronic, although painless, and can lead to strangulation loss of blood supplyobstruction kinking of intestineor both.
Strangulated hernias BPH Hund 18 always painful and pain is followed by tenderness. BPH Hund 18vomitingor fever may BPH Hund 18 in these cases due to bowel obstruction. Also, the hernia bulge BPH Hund 18 this case may turn red, purple or dark and pink. In the diagnosis of abdominal hernias, imaging is the principal means of detecting internal diaphragmatic and other nonpalpable or unsuspected hernias.
Multidetector CT MDCT can show with precision the anatomic site of the hernia sac, the contents of the sac, and any complications. MDCT also offers clear detail of the abdominal wall allowing wall hernias to be identified accurately.
Complications may arise post-operation, including rejection of the mesh that is used to repair the hernia. In the event of a mesh rejection, the mesh will very likely need to be removed.
Mesh rejection can be detected by obvious, sometimes localized swelling and pain around the mesh area. Continuous discharge from the scar is likely for a while after the mesh has been removed. A surgically treated hernia can lead to complications such as inguinodyniawhile an untreated hernia may be complicated by:.
Causes of hiatus hernia vary depending on each individual. Among the multiple causes, however, are the mechanical causes which include: improper heavy weight lifting, hard coughing bouts, sharp blows to the abdomen, and incorrect posture.
Furthermore, conditions that increase the pressure of the abdominal cavity may also cause hernias or worsen the existing ones. Some examples would be: obesity, straining during a bowel movement or urination constipation, enlarged prostatechronic lung diseaseand also, fluid in the abdominal cavity ascites.
Also, if muscles are weakened due to poor nutritionsmokingand overexertionhernias are more likely to occur. The physiological school of thought contends that in the case of inguinal BPH Hund 18the above-mentioned are only an anatomical symptom of the underlying physiological cause. They contend that the risk of hernia BPH Hund 18 due to BPH Hund 18 physiological difference between patients who suffer hernia and those who do not, namely the presence of aponeurotic extensions from the transversus abdominis aponeurotic arch.
Abdominal wall hernia may occur due to trauma. If this type of hernia is due to blunt trauma it is an emergency condition and could be associated with various solid organs and hollow viscus injuries.
Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia in both men and women. In some selected cases, they may require surgery. There are special cases in which the hernia may contain both direct and indirect hernia simultaneously pantaloon herniaor, though very rare, may contain simultaneous indirect hernias.
Pantaloon BPH Hund 18 Saddle Bag hernia is a combined direct and indirect hernia, when the hernial sac protrudes on either side of the inferior epigastric vessels. Femoral hernias occur just below the inguinal ligamentwhen abdominal contents pass into the weak area at BPH Hund 18 posterior wall of the femoral canal. They can be hard to distinguish BPH Hund 18 the inguinal type especially when ascending cephalad : however, they generally appear more rounded, and, in contrast to inguinal hernias, there is a strong female preponderance in femoral hernias.
The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia. A Cooper's hernia is a femoral hernia with two sacs, the first being in the femoral canal, and the second passing through a defect in the superficial fascia and appearing almost immediately beneath the skin. They involve protrusion of intra-abdominal contents through a weakness at the site of passage of the umbilical cord through the abdominal wall.
Umbilical hernias in adults are largely acquired, and are more frequent in obese or pregnant women. Abnormal decussation of fibers at the linea alba may contribute. An incisional hernia occurs when the defect is the result of an incompletely healed surgical wound.
When these occur in median laparotomy incisions in the linea albathey are termed ventral hernias. BPH Hund 18 can be the most frustrating and difficult to treat, as the repair utilizes BPH Hund 18 attenuated tissue.
Higher in the abdomen, an internal "diaphragmatic hernia" results when part of the stomach or intestine protrudes into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm. A hiatus hernia is a particular variant of this type, in which the normal passageway through which the esophagus meets the stomach esophageal hiatus serves as a functional "defect", allowing part of the stomach to periodically "herniate" into the chest.
Hiatus hernias may be either " sliding ", in BPH Hund 18 the gastroesophageal junction itself slides through the defect into the chestor non-sliding also known as BPH Hund 18in which case the junction remains fixed while another portion of the stomach moves up through the defect. Non-sliding or para-esophageal hernias can be dangerous as they may allow the stomach to rotate and obstruct. Repair is usually advised. A congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a distinct problem, occurring in up to 1 in births, and requiring pediatric surgery.
Since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices, it is very difficult to give an exhaustive list of hernias, with all synonyms and eponyms. The above article deals mostly with "visceral hernias", where the herniating tissue arises within the abdominal cavity. Other hernia types and unusual types of visceral hernias are listed below, in alphabetical order:. The benefits of the use of an external device to maintain reduction of the hernia without repairing the underlying defect such as hernia trussestrunks, belts, etc.
Surgery is recommended for some types of hernias to prevent complications like obstruction of the bowel or BPH Hund 18 of the tissue, although umbilical BPH Hund 18 and hiatus hernias may be watched, or are treated with medication.
Time needed for recovery after treatment is BPH Hund 18 if hernias are operated on laparoscopically. However, open surgery can be done sometimes without general anesthesia. Uncomplicated hernias are principally repaired by pushing back, or "reducing", the herniated tissue, and then mending the weakness in muscle tissue an operation called herniorrhaphy.
If complications have occurred, the surgeon will check the viability of the herniated organ and remove part of it if necessary. Muscle reinforcement techniques often involve synthetic materials a mesh prosthesis. At times staples are used to keep the mesh in place. These mesh repair methods are often called "tension free" repairs because, unlike some suture methods e. However, this widely used terminology is misleading, as there are many tension-free suture methods that do not use mesh e.
Evidence suggests that tension-free methods BPH Hund 18 or without mesh often have lower percentage of recurrences and the fastest recovery period compared to tension suture methods. However, among other possible complications, prosthetic mesh usage seems to have BPH Hund 18 higher incidence of chronic pain and, sometimes, infection. The frequency of surgical correction ranges from 10 perU. Many people are managed through day surgery centers, and are able to return to work within a week or two, while intense activities are prohibited for a longer period.
People who have their hernias repaired with mesh often recover within a month, though pain can last longer. Surgical complications include pain that lasts more than three months, surgical site infections, nerve and blood vessel injuries, injury to nearby organs, and hernia recurrence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hernia Diagram of an indirect inguinal hernia view from the side.
Main article: inguinal hernia. Main article: femoral hernia. Main article: Umbilical hernia. Main article: incisional hernia. Main article: diaphragmatic hernia. Main articles: BPH Hund 18 repair and Inguinal hernia surgery. Groin hernias in adults". The New England Journal of Medicine. The 5-minute clinical consult 22nd ed.
Philadelphia, Pa. Archived from the original on Archived BPH Hund 18 the original on 16 March Retrieved 12 March Essentials of Abdominal Wall Hernias. International Pvt Ltd. Retrieved Diagnostic Imaging. The Washington manual of surgery. Archived from the original on October 28, BMC Surg.