Medical Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) - UCLA Urology
PSA is a protein made by prostate cells. It BPH PSA-Tests mostly found in semen, but small amounts of PSA can also be found in the blood of healthy men. A PSA test is often used together with a digital rectal exam DRE to increase the chance of finding prostate cancer early when it is easier to treat.
Using these tests together is better than using either test alone. Men older than 50 years should talk to BPH PSA-Tests doctor about their personal risk of developing prostate cancer and the benefits and risks of having a PSA test. The Canadian BPH PSA-Tests Society recommends that you should also talk to your doctor about PSA testing if you: will soon be 50 years old have a family history of prostate cancer or are of African ancestry have symptoms of prostate cancer.
A PSA test can find prostate cancer early, before it grows large or spreads outside of the prostate. BPH PSA-Tests cancer early can mean that treatments will be more successful.
This happens quite often with PSA testing and only about 1 in 4 abnormal results is due to cancer. A false-positive result can lead to unnecessary follow-up testing that is more invasive, such as repeated biopsies. It can also cause men and their families unnecessary anxiety and distress.
A false-negative result means that the test shows that the PSA level is normal even though prostate cancer is present. Getting a false-negative result may mean that a man and his doctor ignore symptoms of prostate cancer. But most men diagnosed with prostate cancer still choose to have treatment. Unnecessary follow-up testing and treatment put a man at risk for problems, including erectile dysfunction and loss of bladder control called urinary incontinence. A PSA BPH PSA-Tests is a blood test that is done in a lab or hospital.
Ejaculation can affect PSA levels in the body, so you may be told not to ejaculate for a few days before BPH PSA-Tests test. Tell BPH PSA-Tests doctor if you are taking drugs to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, urinary problems or baldness. These drugs can lower PSA levels. Doctors have a hard time agreeing on what is a normal PSA level.
Your doctor will help you determine your risk of prostate cancer in relation to your age, BPH PSA-Tests history and BPH PSA-Tests personal information.
High PSA levels can also be caused by: an enlarged prostate due to benign prostatic hyperplasia an inflamed or infected prostate called prostatitis a urinary tract infection a recent medical test or procedure on the prostate, such as a transrectal ultrasound TRUS or biopsy a urinary catheter a bladder exam BPH PSA-Tests activity that includes ejaculation bike riding often or a recent long bike ride warmer climates. Sometimes the PSA level goes up temporarily after a couple of years of receiving radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer.
This is called a PSA bounce. In most cases, the PSA level will fall the next time it is checked. There is no limit to how high a PSA level may rise. But some men with prostate cancer will have a normal PSA level. For these reasons, researchers are still trying to find out the best way to use the PSA test to find prostate cancer. They are also looking for other ways to find prostate cancer BPH PSA-Tests. If you have a high PSA level, your doctor will talk to you about your options.
Together you will decide if you need other tests, procedures, follow-up care or treatment. The type of follow-up care you receive will depend on whether or not you have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The result of the follow-up PSA test is compared to the first test. If your PSA level continues to rise or the doctor feels a lump on the prostate during a DRE, follow-up tests may also include: urine tests, such BPH PSA-Tests a urinalysis a transrectal ultrasound TRUS x-rays a bladder exam called a BPH PSA-Tests a prostate biopsy.
They can be used to follow up on BPH PSA-Tests high PSA level. Researchers are also trying to find out if they can find prostate cancer better than BPH PSA-Tests regular PSA testing. It is less useful at diagnosing prostate BPH PSA-Tests. Some research shows that PSA velocity that rises quickly can BPH PSA-Tests doctors diagnose prostate cancer. The result is calculated in time. PSA doubling time can BPH PSA-Tests doctors find out if a prostate cancer is aggressive, which means it is more likely to grow quickly and spread.
In the blood, PSA is either bound or free unbound. Bound PSA means that it is attached to BPH PSA-Tests proteins. PSA that is not attached to other proteins is called free PSA because it circulates freely in the blood. Free PSA levels are often higher in men with non-cancerous conditions of the prostate and lower in men with prostate cancer. It is calculated by BPH PSA-Tests the PSA level and dividing by the prostate volume.
PSA levels are usually higher in men with enlarged prostates. PSAD of the transition zone is the level of PSA in the blood in relation to the volume of the transition zone of the prostate. PSAD of the transition zone seems to be more accurate than PSAD of the entire prostate at identifying which men have benign prostatic hyperplasia and which men have prostate cancer.
Nomograms are statistical models that predict probable outcome. Prostate cancer nomograms look at BPH PSA-Tests results and a number of other factors, such as age, ethnicity, family history, urinary symptoms, DRE results and prostate biopsy results. In males, the urethra passes through the prostate and penis and carries BPH PSA-Tests as well as urine. In females, the urethra opens above the vaginal opening.
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Read more. Canadians can help CCS fund the best research and support people living with BPH PSA-Tests by donating and volunteering. Learn more. Select the text below and copy the link. Who should have a PSA test Men older than 50 years should talk to their doctor about their personal risk of developing prostate cancer and the benefits and risks of having a PSA test.
Benefits A PSA test can find prostate cancer early, before it grows large or spreads outside of the prostate. Risks PSA testing carries the following risks. High PSA levels can also be caused by: an enlarged prostate due to benign prostatic hyperplasia an inflamed or infected prostate called prostatitis a BPH PSA-Tests tract infection a recent medical test or procedure on the prostate, such as a transrectal ultrasound TRUS or biopsy a urinary catheter a bladder exam sexual activity that includes ejaculation bike riding often or a recent long bike ride warmer climates Sometimes the PSA level goes up temporarily after a couple of years of receiving radiation therapy BPH PSA-Tests treat prostate cancer.
Nomograms Nomograms are statistical models that predict probable outcome. First name:. Last name:. Email address:. Phone Number:. Postal code:. Stories E-cigarettes in Canada. Links to help you Publications Talk to an information specialist Talk to someone who's been there Connect with our online community. Reducing the burden of cancer Canadians can help CCS fund the best research and support people living with cancer by donating and volunteering. Need more information?