Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie

Enterococcus Faecium

Haupt Verkalkung der Prostata

Technisches Gebiet technical field. The present invention relates generally to compositions and methods for the treatment or prevention of diseases of hollow organs "body Passageways" and more particularly to compositions comprising therapeutic agents which may be delivered to the external walls of hollow organs.

Hintergrund der Erfindung Background of the Invention. Es gibt viele Hohlorgane im Körper, die den Durchfluss essentieller Stoffe ermöglichen. There are many hollow organs in Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie body that allow the flow of essential materials.

These include, for example, arteries and veins, the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, biliary tract, ureter, bladder, urethra, nasal passageways, trachea and other airways, and the male and female genital tract a. Zum Beispiel können viele Arten von Tumoren sowohl gutartige Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie auch bösartige zur Schädigung der Wand eines Hohlorgans oder zur Verlegung des Lumens führen und damit den Durchfluss von Stoffen durch das Hohlorgan verlangsamen oder verhindern.

For example, many types of tumors both benign and malignant can result, and thus slow or prevent the flow of substances through the hollow organ to damage to the wall of a hollow organ or for the laying of the lumen. Es wurde geschätzt, dass es allein im Jahr in den Vereinigten Staaten über It was estimated that there would be only in in the United States over 11, deaths due to esophageal cancer, more than 51, deaths from colon and small intestine cancer and nearly 17, deaths from colorectal cancer.

Verlegungen von Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie, die von Krebs befallen sind, sind nicht nur an sich lebensbedrohlich, sie schränken auch die Lebensqualität des Patienten ein. Linings of hollow organs that are affected by cancer are not only life-threatening, they also limit the quality of life of the patient.

Unglücklicherweise ist ein Tumor zu dem Zeitpunkt, an dem er eine Verlegung eines Hohlorgans verursacht, häufig inoperabel und wird im Allgemeinen nicht auf traditionelle Therapien ansprechen. Unfortunately, a tumor at the time at which it causes an instance of a hollow organ, frequently inoperable and generally do not respond to traditional therapies. Ein Versuch zur Lö sung dieses Problems bestand darin, endoluminale Stents einzusetzen.

An attempt to Lö solution to this problem was to use endoluminal stent. In Kürze sind Stents Vorrichtungen, die in das Lumen eines Hohlorgans eingebracht werden, um ein Hohlorgan, das durch einen Tumor oder andere Gewebe oder Substanzen blockiert wurde, physikalisch offen zu halten.

In brief Stents are devices which are inserted into the lumen of a hollow organ to hold a hollow organ that has been blocked by a tumor Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie other tissue or Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie physically open. Ein erheblicher Nachteil bei der Verwendung von Stents bei neoplastischer Blockierung ist jedoch, dass der Tumor Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie durch die Zwischenräume des Stents in das Lumen hinein wachsen kann.

However, a significant drawback to the use of stents in neoplastic obstruction is that the tumor can grow through the interstices of the stent into the lumen often. In addition, the presence of a stent in the lumen can cause the surface of the stent, Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie ingrowth of reactive or inflammatory tissue eg blood vessels, fibroblasts, or white blood cells.

Other diseases, although not neoplastic nevertheless bring a proliferation with it can equally Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie hollow organs. Die derzeitigen pharmakologischen Therapien wie zum Beispiel 5-Alphareduktase-Hemmer zB Finasterid oder alphaadrenerge Blocker zB Terazosin sind im Allgemeinen nur bei einer begrenzten Patientenpopulation wirksam. The current pharmacological therapies such as 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors eg, finasteride or alpha adrenergic blockers eg, terazosin are generally effective only in a limited population of patients.

In addition result from the surgical procedures that can be performed such as transurethral resection of the prostate TURPopen prostatectomy, or endo-urologic procedures such as laser prostatectomy, use of microwaves, hypothermia, cryosurgery or stentingtypically numerous complications such as bleeding, infection, incontinence, impotence, and recurrent disease.

According to estimates from Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie website of the US Heart and Stroke Foundation over 60 million Americans had one or more forms of cardiovascular disease. Im selben Jahr Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie diese Krankheiten Although this is the treatment of choice in many cases a severe vasoconstriction, for example, has one-third of patients who undergo balloon angioplasty Source: website of Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie Heart and Stroke Foundationa re-narrowing restenosis of the treated arteries within 6 months after the original measure, often seriously enough to make further interventions required.

Such vascular diseases including for example, restenosis are at least partly due to a thickening of the intima due to the migration of vascular smooth muscle Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie VSMCVSMC proliferation and deposition of extracellular matrix due. Briefly, the vascular endothelium acts as a nonthrombogenic surface over which blood can flow smoothly and as a barrier which separates the blood components from the tissues comprising the vessel wall.

Jeglicher Verlust und jegliche Schädigung an Endothel, wie es zum Beispiel bei einer Ballonangioplastie, Atherektomie oder Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie auftritt, kann zu einer Plättchen-Adhäsion, einer Plättchen-Aggregation und zur Thrombusbildung führen. Any loss and any damage to the endothelium, such as occurs for example in balloon angioplasty, atherectomy or stent implantation may result in platelet adhesion, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.

Gewebsfaktoren, die von den Arterien freigesetzt werden, stimulieren die Bildung von Gerinnseln, was zu einer Fibrin-Matrix führt, in die glatte Muskelzellen einwandern und proliferieren Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie. Tissue factors, which are released by the arteries stimulates clot formation resulting in a fibrin matrix, migrate into the smooth muscle cells and can proliferate.

This cascade of events leads to the transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells from a Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie to a secretory phenotype. Cell lysis and matrix destruction caused by angioplasty leads to local release of basic fibroblast growth factor bFGFwhich in turn stimulates VSMC proliferation directly and indirectly through the induction of PDGF production. Vascular smooth muscle cells are also encouraged to migrate into the media Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie intima of the vessel.

This is enabled by release and activation of matrix metalloproteases, the way through the extracellular matrix and the inner elastic layer of the vessel wall for the VSMC.

After the immigration and proliferation the vascular smooth muscle cells store then from an extracellular matrix consisting of glycosaminoglycans, elastin and collagen which comprises the largest part of intimal thickening. An essential part of the process of restenosis may be due to remodeling of the vascular wall leading to changes in the overall size of the artery, which is at least part by proliferation within the adventitia in addition to the media conditionally.

The net result of these processes is a recurrence of the narrowing of the vessel wall, which is often severe enough to require re-intervention. In summary, virtually any forceful manipulation within the lumen of a blood vessel will damage its endothelial Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie denude.

This leaves treatment options for vascular diseases themselves and for restenosis after therapeutic interventions problems with regard to the long-term results of such diseases. There are in addition to neoplastic obstructions and vascular disease also many acute and chronic inflammatory diseases that lead to the laying of body passages. These include, for example, vasculitis, diseases of Gastrointesti naltraktes eg Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and respiratory diseases eg asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a.

Jede dieser Erkrankungen kann mit unterschiedlichen Erfolgsraten Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie Medikamenten wie zum Beispiel Entzündungshemmern oder Immunsuppressiva behandelt werden. Each of these diseases can be treated with different success rates with medications such as anti-inflammatories or immunosuppressants. Derzeitige Behandlungsregime bewirken jedoch oft keine Verlangsamung des Fortschreitens der Erkrankung und können zu systemischen toxischen Effekten und unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen führen.

However, current Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie regimes often does not slow the progression of the disease and can lead to systemic toxic effects and adverse effects result. Es können auch chirurgische Verfahren anstelle von oder zusätzlich Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie medikamentösen Therapien eingesetzt werden.

It can also surgical procedures instead of, or be used in addition to drug therapies. Such surgical procedures have a high rate of local recurrence due to scar Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie, and for example, through the use of balloon catheters can lead to a benign reactive overgrowth under certain circumstances.

Other diseases that can also move the hollow organs include infectious diseases. In brief, Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie are a number of acute and chronic infectious processes that can lead to obstruction of hollow organs, including, for example, urethritis, prostatitis and other diseases Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie the male reproductive tract, various diseases of the female genital tract, cystitis and urethritis diseases of the urinary tractchronic bronchitis, tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections and other respiratory problems and certain cardiovascular diseases.

Jedoch weisen, wie oben erwähnt, solche medikamentösen Therapien die Problematik von assoziierten systemischen toxischen Effekten auf, die zu unerwünschten Nebenwirkungen führen können.

However, have, as mentioned above, such drug therapies on the problems of associated systemic toxic effects which can lead to undesirable side effects. Further, as mentioned above, perform surgical procedures due to scarring to local recurrence and may have a benign, reactive overgrowth result in certain processes such as implantation of commercially available stents.

The existing treatments for the above diseases and disorders share the same limitations for the most part. Die Verwendung therapeutischer Agenzien hat nicht zu einer Heilung dieser Erkrankungen geführt und immer, wenn eine Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie zur Behandlung der Erkrankungen eingesetzt wird, besteht für den Patienten ein Risiko als Resultat der Reaktion des Körpers auf die Intervention.

The use of therapeutic agents has not led to a cure of these diseases and whenever an intervention for the treatment of diseases is used, there is a risk for the patient as a result of the body's response to the intervention. Die vorliegende Erfindung stellt Zusammensetzungen und Verfahren bereit, die zur Behandlung dieser oben im Allgemeinen behandelten Erkrankungen und Krankheiten geeignet sind. The present invention provides compositions and methods that are useful in the treatment of these treated generally above disorders and diseases.

Diese Zusammensetzungen und Verfahren gehen auf die mit den vorhandenen Verfahren verbundenen Probleme ein, bieten im Vergleich mit den vorhandenen Verfahren wesentliche Vorteile und bieten zusätzlich weitere, ähnliche Vorzüge. These compositions and methods take to the connected to the existing process issues an Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie compared with existing methods substantial benefits and also offer other similar benefits. Reimer Riessen et al. Zusammenfassung der Erfindung Summary of the Invention.

The present invention relates to the use of paclitaxel, or an analogue or derivative thereof for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment or prevention of diseases of hollow organs or of diseases which are associated with the transfer, or narrowing of hollow organs, wherein the medicament to Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie outer part said hollow organ to be dispensed.

Weitere Ausführungsformen der Erfindung werden in den Ansprüchen beschrieben. Further embodiments of the invention are described in Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie claims. Die Verfahren zur Behandlung oder Vorbeugung von Erkrankungen von Hohlorganen, wofür die Erfindung dienlich ist, umfassen den Schritt, den therapeutischen Wirkstoff an die glatten Muskelzellen des besagten Hohlorgans über die Adventitia abzugeben.

The method for the treatment or prevention of diseases of hollow organs, for which the invention is useful comprise the step to deliver the therapeutic agent to the smooth muscle Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie of Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie body passageway via the adventitia. In dem die therapeutische Verbindung lokal an die Stelle der Erkrankung abgegeben wird, können systemische und unerwünschte Nebenwirkungen vermieden werden und die Gesamtdosierungen können möglicherweise verringert werden.

In which the therapeutic compound is delivered locally to the site of disease, systemic and unwanted side effects can be avoided and total dosages can potentially be reduced.

A quadrant either or ring delivery to the affected hollow organ also avoids many of the Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie of endoluminal manipulation, including damage to the endothelial layer of the fabric. In the case of prostate disease that prevent tampering with instruments in the urethra can reduce the likelihood of strictures and preserve continence Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie potency. The therapeutic agents can be used to treat a variety of diseases or prevent, including, for example, vascular diseases, neoplastic obstructions, inflammatory diseases and infectious Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie.

Typical hollow organs that can be treated include, for example, arteries, the esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the small intestine, the colon, bile ducts, the ureter, the bladder, the urethra, the prostate, lacrimal ducts, the trachea, bronchi, bronchiolesnasal airways, eustachian tubes, the external auditory canal, uterus and fallopian tubes a.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention the therapeutic agent is an artery is supplied by direct injection via an outer wall of the artery in the adventitia. Merely for purposes of illustration, certain embodiments for which the invention is useful to provide methods for treating vascular diseases eg, stenosisgastrointestinal diseases, diseases of the urogenital tract eg, benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancerand pulmonary diseases specific examples of all of the above are treated in detail below by the administration of paclitaxel, or analogues or derivatives thereof on hollow organs that are affected by the disease.

Diese und andere Gesichtspunkte der vorliegenden Erfindung werden unter Bezugnahme auf die folgende ausführliche Beschreibung und die beigefügten Abbildungen klar werden. These and other aspects of the present invention will become apparent with reference to Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.

Which is an Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie detail - labeled "10C-inset" - contains is a scanning electron micrograph which shows the size of "large" microspheres. Open circles are "small" microspheres and closed circles are "large" microspheres.

The PCL pastes contain microparticles of paclitaxel and various additives prepared using mesh th Die Fehlerbalken stellen die Standardabweichung Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie 3 Proben dar. The error bars represent the standard deviation of 3 samples. Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie graph shows the effects of gelatin concentration mesh size and the size of the microparticles of paclitaxel and gelatin 1: 1the 60 were prepared using the mesh size or mesh size.

Die Fehlerbalken stellen die Standardabweichung von 3 Proben dar. Die The 18A 18A. Showing the close association of paclitaxel rod shaped and gelatin-Matrx. Were treated and show avascular zones in the paclitaxel treated CAM. Schmelzpunkte und Enthalpien siehe Melting points and enthalpies see 21 Die Fehlerbalken stellen die Standardabweichung von 4 Proben dar.

The error bars represent the standard deviation of Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie samples. Die The 24A 24A. Die The 27A 27A. Enterococcus sp Prostatahyperplasie The 35A 35A.

Die The 37A 37A. Effect of time copolymer or Cremophor concentration 0. In brief, this image shows an avascular zone treated with 20 ug and 70 ug suramin cortisone acetate in 0.