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This article was Massage Prostata-Tests, compiled and written by:- Alessandra Dalevi — Salegen is a new medicine sold in tablet form used Massage Prostata-Tests the treatment of xerostoma, a disease also known as dry mouth syndrome in which the person is Massage Prostata-Tests able to produce saliva. Its active ingredient is pilocarpine, a substance extracted from jaborandi, a plant native to Northeastern Brazil. Pilocarpus jaborandi is an integral part of Brazilian folk medicine.
Caboclos non-Indian jungle residents and Indians prepare a tea with its leaves and drink it as a diuretic or to induce sweat.
Diabetics and asthma sufferers use it as expectorant and stimulant via an infusion made with Massage Prostata-Tests powdered leaves. Arthritis and pleurisy—a lung inflammation—have also been treated with jaborandi. And when applied to the scalp, a potion made with the leaves is believed to prevent baldness. Merck Laboratory has marketed a product made from jaborandi called Policarpina, which is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
When Massage Prostata-Tests first Europeans landed in the Americas, the indigenous peoples from the region, utilizing plants and other natural substances had already developed a sophisticated medical system that included diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases.
With the skyrocketing prices of developing new drugs and a seeming exhaustion of the traditional allopathic medicine, more and more laboratories around the world are showing interest in this wealth of folk medicine knowledge. The costs of researching the medicinal powers of plants are far less than trying to produce synthetic drugs. Besides, the sheer number of different chemicals that exist in the Amazon, for example, dwarfs the capacity that Massage Prostata-Tests have of creating new products.
Many companies have also used the argument that Brazil has no right to demand compensation and royalties for Massage Prostata-Tests resources when the country is an infamous pirate itself producing medicines patented overseas without paying any royalties to its creators. This problem, however, has been addressed recently by the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, which has passed a law recognizing foreign patents for several products including pharmaceutical ones.
Among Brazilian herbal products widely used in the country, santo daime Vine Banisteriopsis and quebra-pedra Parietaria officinalis have been patented in the U. The first substance, extracted from a vine, and also known as jagupe and ayahuasca, has hallucinogenic properties Massage Prostata-Tests is used in connection with some Indian religious rituals and some sects.
The International Plant Medicine Corporation got its patent. Massage Prostata-Tests quebra-pedra stone breaker, literallyalso known as fura-paredes walls piercer, literally is prepared as an infusion for kidney ailments. In the U. In Japan, an Amazon plant called muirapuama is being sold as a cure for impotency and as an aphrodisiac. In Canada, Biolink, a small and new company has patented rupununine, a substance extracted from the seeds of bibiri Octotea radioeian Amazon plant.
Biolink also wants to patent cumaniol, a substance extracted from a poison made from wild manioc, that is used to catch fishes in the Amazon. The Massage Prostata-Tests product, Massage Prostata-Tests to the Canadian company, might be used to stop the heart during some delicate surgeries. Another herb abundant in Brazil has become a Massage Prostata-Tests phenomenon being touted as the natural Prozac.
In Germany, the product, which is taken as a tea or in the form of tablets, is being prescribed by doctors 25 times more than Prozac. German doctors just last year wrote 3 million prescriptions for the product. The craze is also starting to catch up in the U. A study published in the United States shows that only 2. To appease his spirit, natives, acknowledging his fondness for honey, leave Massage Prostata-Tests and pollen in disturbed hives.
The result is re-colonization of these hives by certain species of bees. From the fear of phantasmagorical retribution comes the reintroduction of species to Massage Prostata-Tests hives.
The story of Bepkororoti is just one example of the way in which indigenous mythology contributes to biodiversity. For many indigenous tribes, it is a human obligation to maintain the balance and health of the natural world. Nature is inclusive; human beings are merely a part of the greater whole. In indigenous cultures, rituals and ceremonies serve to prevent overconsumption of natural resources; to these populations, environmental ethics Massage Prostata-Tests discernible in the very structure and organization of the natural world.
For those who live deep in Massage Prostata-Tests jungles of the Amazon basin and other areas of great biodiversity, the forest acts not only as a home, but as a pharmacy and Massage Prostata-Tests store as well.
Studies have consistently demonstrated the importance of a diverse ecosystem to indigenous tribes. The Shuar use at least medicinal species in their pharmacoepeia. Given the limits of these resources, they operate efficiently. An example is the Kayapo, who create trails in the woods and carry seeds and tubers to plant along the trails when they defecate. They are dependent Massage Prostata-Tests their local ecosystem, and have derived a great understanding of their surroundings from long-term cyclical observation over Massage Prostata-Tests years in which they have been able to observe seasonally reoccurring phenomena.
In fact, often the indigenous understanding Massage Prostata-Tests that of the Western scientist. Ethnobotanists — scientists who study the relationship between people and plants — have encountered native classifications of strains of wild species which, to their trained eye, offered no tangible differences.
For example, the Barasana Indians of Amazonian Colombia can identify all tree species in their territory without having to refer to the fruit or flowers. It is through necessity that the natives make such recognitions. Different species serve different uses.
With no written language, the indigenous orally transfer this knowledge from the elders to their students. One ethnobotanist has determined that it is this very nonliterate tradition which influences Massage Prostata-Tests in which rationalistic knowledge is acquired about ecological associations. The forest serves not only as a home, but Massage Prostata-Tests a laboratory Massage Prostata-Tests school as well; it is the universe Massage Prostata-Tests which arises all indigenous social Massage Prostata-Tests and sacred rites.
This is precisely what the indigenous have done for generations. Today, indigenous agricultural and gathering practices continue to transform the landscape in manners which often encourage biodiversity and sustainable use. Studies have shown the effect of indigenous soil management and in situ plant management on biodiversity: Gathering strategies such as rotation Massage Prostata-Tests gathering areas prevent the decrease or loss of some resources; enhancement strategies, such as sowing seeds in areas occupied by populations of wild plants or Massage Prostata-Tests and of course, protection of plants through the elimination of competitors and predators also serve to transform the landscape.
As subsistence farmers, most Massage Prostata-Tests engage in sustainable practices. Problems arise when economic pressures force tribes to engage in the growing of cash crops or when local resources have been plundered by outsiders of the community. Then, as with most societies in similar circumstances, the indigenous are prone to overuse resources, overhunt game, and fell Massage Prostata-Tests for timber.
While ecosystem people are at risk to local catastrophes which could eliminate their resource base, the same catastrophe has a minimum impact upon the biosphere people, who can simply draw more heavily upon a different ecosystem. Because of their lack of Massage Prostata-Tests and a feeling of independence from the environment, biosphere people may never develop the strong cultural ethics necessary for wise resource management.
The next section of this paper explores the consequences of these conflicting Massage Prostata-Tests views. Each year, an estimatedkm2 approximately 65, square miles of tropical forest is felled, often to Massage Prostata-Tests the world market for tropical woods Massage Prostata-Tests to provide space for cattle ranching. In Eco Travels in Brazil alone, the forests are disappearing by an alarming rate of nearly 30, km2 approximately 11, square miles per year.
Often the destruction has Massage Prostata-Tests the result of government policies promoting Massage Prostata-Tests ranching and logging through tax incentives. Return of traditional land to the natives spawns great resentment in a country in which 45 percent of the land belongs to 1 percent of the population.
Lacking resources and the desire to enforce the law, the Brazilian government has stood by and allowed continued infiltration and exploitation of these demarcated lands.
In October14 Ticunas were killed in an ambush by loggers. The Gorotire have experienced mercury Massage Prostata-Tests due to its use in mining operations.
But it is not only those in search of riches who have negatively impacted the indigenous. For a long time, poorly-conceived development projects overseen by multilateral lending institutions such as the World Bank were responsible for the displacement and deaths of many indigenous peoples. In this century alone, some 80 entire societies have vanished in Brazil.
Yet extinction is only an extreme of other ongoing problems. In addition to loss of land and population decreases, many indigenous tribes face the loss of their very identity. Acculturation has long detracted from cultural identity. Now, Massage Prostata-Tests threat is even greater as generations of knowledge may be lost with the passing of elders who have no students interested in continuing the ancient traditions.
Massage Prostata-Tests, often it is the shaman who harbors the greatest knowledge of the forest and its products. One day the medicines that the missionaries send from the city will no longer arrive. The Massage Prostata-Tests will come to me to relieve their pains, to conquer the evil spirits that kill their children. But I will be gone, and I will have taken my plants with me. How much are the rainforests worth?
Hard to Massage Prostata-Tests. This amount was proposed by P. More than companies have been established here to collect foreign material, an activity that is elegantly called bioprospection, but others prefer to call biopiracy. According to Luiz Frederico Arruda, a professor at Universidade de Manaus, Amazonas Massage Prostata-Tests capital, at least 20, plant samples are taken from the Amazon every year. In the second, they get the patent for something that is being used freely.
While the patent has legal value only in the country in which it was registered, it is normal that the rest of the world ends up accepting it. Afterwards, they industrialize them and resell them to the Third World Country with infinitely superior prices. Biopiracy can be very sophisticated and hardly noticeable. Here is a classic example. Inthe Massage Prostata-Tests magazine National Geographic published an article about the Massage Prostata-Tests uses of the tiki uba, a plant used by Massage Prostata-Tests Amazon Urueu-Wau-Wau Indians.
No consideration or reward has been given to the Urueu-Wau-Waus, who are on the brink of extinction. Brazilian law against this kind of piracy has been vague and enforcement of it is non-existent. Massage Prostata-Tests spite of that, times seem to be changing. Biopiracy is nothing new in Brazil. The most infamous case is that of Englishman Henry Alexander Wickham, who in stole rubber tree seeds, hiding them between banana leaves leading to a new plantation of the Hevea brasiliensis in the British colonies in Ceylon, Malaysia.
In a few decades the region would become the main exporter Massage Prostata-Tests latex, ruining in the process the rubber tree-based Amazon Massage Prostata-Tests. Long before that, right after the discovery of the land by the Portuguese inthe discoverers themselves Massage Prostata-Tests then other Europeans just stole from the Indians the secret of how to extract a red pigment from pau-brasil brazil wood.
During the World Summit on Ecology in Rio, the countries present signed the Convention on Biological Diversity, a document establishing that communities or countries must be paid royalties when companies develop products based on Massage Prostata-Tests natural resources or indigenous knowledge.
These peoples have not only taken from the land. They Massage Prostata-Tests contributed to biodiversity by planting and transplanting. This assertion has Massage Prostata-Tests implications for those Massage Prostata-Tests the rights of indigenous populations over certain knowledge or natural product.