Treatment of Prostate Enlargement by Acupressure

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Learn more. DOI: Liesel M FitzGerald. Xiaotun Zhang. Suzanne Kolb. Erika M Kwon. Show more authors. Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik studies demonstrate that the variant allele directly affects expression of the MSMB-encoded protein, PSP94, and also suggest that it affects mRNA Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik levels of an adjacent Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik, NCOA4, which is involved in androgen receptor transactivation.

Methods used:. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. Citations References Pathologist visual scoring data often use a simple ordinal variable scale e. More complex pathologist visual scoring systems have been developed to provide quasi-continuous variable data, such as multiplying an ordinal variable of intensity by an estimate of tissue area comprising that intensity level [26, 27].

Although studies examining the correlation and reproducibility of pathologist Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik scoring and digital image analysis have been performed in breast cancer, to date there has been little research validating such tools in PCa.

Cytoplasm Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik nuclei were evaluated separately. Tissue spots that were missing, damaged, contained staining artifacts, or had uncertain histology were excluded from the analysis. Full-text available. Dec Diagn Pathol. Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik Digital image analysis offers advantages over Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik pathologist visual scoring of immunohistochemistry, although few studies examining the correlation and reproducibility of these methods have been Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik in prostate cancer.

Two independent analysis runs were performed to evaluate reproducibility. Image analysis data were evaluated for associations with recurrence-free survival and disease specific survival following radical prostatectomy. For the reproducibility analysis, there was high Spearman correlation between pathologist visual scores generated for Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik TMA Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik across Analysis Runs A and B Nuclei: 0.

Conclusions Digital methods of immunohistochemical quantification are more Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik than pathologist visual scoring in prostate cancer, suggesting that digital Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik are preferable and especially warranted for Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik involving large sample sizes.

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi Several studies, including our own [6]Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik observed that Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik variant T allele of SNP Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik, which is in the proximal promoter region of the MSMB gene, is associated with Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik PCa risk and with lower PSP94 protein expression in tissue and urine [7][8][9][10][11].

Despite the observed association between PSP94 and the development of PCa, its biological function remains unclear. Moreover, an observed infectious organism may be a proxy for Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik unidentified pathogen, since co-infections are common. Following the theory proposed by Laurence [12], the present study provides initial epidemiological support for the hypothesis that the PSP94 protein may inhibit the adverse effects of a sexually transmitted pathogen on prostatic tissue, since men who carry the T allele of rs have been shown to have lower PSP94 Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik in prostate tissue and lower PSP94 concentrations in urine, and are also at increased risk for PCa Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik [7][8][9][10][11].

Dec Prostate. Recently, a genetic variant rs in the MSMB gene associated with prostate cancer PCa risk was shown to correlate with Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids PSP94 levels. Although the biological activity Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik PSP94 is unclear, one of its hypothesized functions is Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik protect prostatic cells from pathogens.

Number of sexual partners and a history of sexually transmitted infections STIs have Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik positively associated with PCa Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik, and these associations may be related to pathogen-induced chronic prostatic inflammation. Results from finemapping studies further indicate that associations between rs carrier status and prostate cancer risk were stronger and more significant than Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik for other local tag SNPs, which, together with observed promoter activity, suggest Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik rs is Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik of the main SNPs responsible for observed associations between MSMB-related variation and prostate cancer risk [3,8].

Finally, although rs carrier status was also associated with levels of mRNA for NCOA4 a gene located within 16 kb telomeric of rs in one Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik of benign prostate tissue [15], no association was observed Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik NCOA4 protein levels in the only other study to examine this possible relation [16]suggesting that rs genetic Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik are likely specific to MSMB. This bias occurs when the variant under investigation is associated with prostate cancer detection through its association with elevated PSA levels and the likelihood of prostate biopsy Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik of the presence of prostate cancer.

Although rs carrier status is associated with PSA levels [6,12, [16] [17][18], we believe that PSA detection bias is unlikely to explain associations between Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik status and prostate cancer risk because similar associations were observed for both cancers more and less Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik to be detected purely by PSA e.

Based on levels Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik MSMB expression among men of varying rs genotype, this role appears to be protective. Low-risk rs C Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik carriers have the highest levels of promoter activity [3,8] and prostate tissue expression [15, 16, 27], and the highest concentrations of PSP94 in their blood [13,17], urine [27], and seminal plasma [8,17,27], suggesting that high PSP94 expression may be Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik for prostate cancer.

Although the protective mechanisms conferred by the rs C allele are unknown, two previously hypothesized biological functions of PSP94 could explain this effect: tumor suppression [28] and pathogen defense [29]. May Prostate. With recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, many prostate cancer risk loci have been identified, including rs, a single nucleotide polymorphism SNP located near the MSMB gene.

We reviewed the literature on possible mechanisms for PSP94 protection for prostate cancer. One possible mechanism is tumor suppression, as PSP94 has been observed Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik inhibit cell or tumor growth in in vitro and in vivo models. Another novel mechanism, which we propose in this review article, is that PSP94 may protect against prostate cancer by preventing or limiting an intracellular fungal infection in the prostate.

This mechanism is based on the recent discovery of PSP94's fungicidal activity in low-calcium environments such as the cytosol of epithelial cellsand accumulating evidence suggesting a role for inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis. We provide further details of our proposed mechanism Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik this review article.

To explore this mechanism, future studies should consider screening prostate specimens for fungi using the rapidly expanding number of molecular techniques capable of identifying infectious agents from the entire tree of life.

Subsequent studies [9][10][11] [12] [13][14][15][16][17][18]also investigated the association between MSMB gene rs polymorphism and Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik susceptibility, but with conflicting conclusions. These studies were conflicting and inconclusive probably due to different ethnic Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik, clinical heterogeneity, and small sample sizes.

We finally identified 11 eligible Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik [8][9][10][11] [12] [13][14][15][16][17][18]including 13 studies 31, cases and 30, controls in Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik meta-analysis. Selection for eligible studies included in this meta-analysis was presented in Figure 1.

It Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik reasonable to hypothesize that MSMB gene rs polymorphism Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of PC.

To date, many studies [8][9][10][11] [12] [13][14][15][16][17][18]explored the association between MSMB gene polymorphism and PC risk. However, these studies detected conflicting results. MSMB gene rs polymorphism increases the risk of prostate cancer. Feb Therefore, we performed Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik systematic review and Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik by searching in the databases of PubMed, and Embase.

A total of 11 publications Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik 13 case-control studies for rs polymorphism were Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik in our analysis. Stratification analyses of ethnicity suggested rs polymorphism increased the risk of PC among Caucasians, but not among Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik.

Contribution of MSMB promoter region gene polymorphism to early-onset prostate cancer risk Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik Mexican males. Jan Sexually transmitted infections and its contribution to prostate cancer PC development have been relevant in different populations.

MSMB gene polymorphism rs has exhibited an Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik both with PC as well as the susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections.

Hitherto, these conditions have been not studied in Mexico yet, neither if sexually transmitted infections could modify the MSMB and PC association. Herein, socio-demographic features, Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik transmitted infections records, the reproductive backgrounds, and the genetic characterisation were analysed in incident PC cases and population healthy Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik from Mexico City.

Overall, none associations between the allelic variants of Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik polymorphisms with whole and PC aggressiveness were found. Although none Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik between whole PC and Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik gene Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik was found, our results were reinforced by prior studies in European descendent populations, suggesting a contribution between rs and early-onset Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik development.

Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik genetic variant rs is associated with PCa risk however further investigation is required to evaluate the predictive value of this marker. Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik Status of Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik for Prostate Cancer. Prostate cancer PCa is a Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik cause of cancer-related death of men globally.

Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management.

It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles. This action is suggested to be regulated via binding to cell-surface receptors Yang et al. Moreover, the large genome-wide association studies showed that decreased expression of PSP94 caused by the rs single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with an increased risk Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik developing prostate cancer, suggesting a protective role of PSP94 in PC incidence Lou et al.

Aug These represent the putative causal PrCa susceptibility variant within that locus and include the well-established HOXB13 causal variant rs at Chr17q21 9as well as rs in the promoter of MSMB, which modulates gene expression in prostate tissue [17] [18][19].

These two regions serve as proof Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik principle; our Fig. Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants. Jun Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik loci have been identified through GWAS.

Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall.

Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are Prostata-Sekretion-Assay-Technik by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1.

In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.